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Professor Marleen Boelaert

TitleProfessor
InstitutionInstitute of Tropical Medicine
DepartmentDepartment of Public Health
AddressAntwerp
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Marleen Boelaert is an epidemiologist who graduated as a medical doctor from the KULeuven in 1985. She worked with Médecins Sans Frontières in several African countries between 1986 and 1994. She joined the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp, Belgium in 1994. Her PhD research focused on diagnostic accuracy studies when there is no gold standard, a common problem in parasitic diseases. Her research concentrates on the control of tropical infectious diseases, mainly leishmaniasis and sleeping sickness. She evaluated the clinical benefit of rapid diagnostic tests for kala-azar and the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets for kala-azar control.

    Current research topics are:
    •Visceral leishmaniasis elimination strategies in the Indian subcontinent
    •Alternative approaches to population screening of sleeping sickness in the context of elimination
    •Syndromatic approach to the clinical management of NTDs (www.nidiag.org)
    •Socio-economic dimensions of NTDs


    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Burza S, Croft SL, Boelaert M. Leishmaniasis - Authors' reply. Lancet. 2019 03 02; 393(10174):872-873. PMID: 30837140.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Burza S, Croft SL, Boelaert M. Leishmaniasis. Lancet. 2018 09 15; 392(10151):951-970. PMID: 30126638.
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    3. Boelaert M, Mukendi D, Bottieau E, Kalo Lilo JR, Verdonck K, Minikulu L, Barbé B, Gillet P, Yansouni CP, Chappuis F, Lutumba P. A Phase III Diagnostic Accuracy Study of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Diagnosis of Second-Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. EBioMedicine. 2018 Jan; 27:11-17. PMID: 29246478.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Bisser S, Lumbala C, Nguertoum E, Kande V, Flevaud L, Vatunga G, Boelaert M, Büscher P, Josenando T, Bessell PR, Biéler S, Ndung'u JM. Sensitivity and Specificity of a Prototype Rapid Diagnostic Test for the Detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Infection: A Multi-centric Prospective Study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Apr; 10(4):e0004608. PMID: 27058033.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Cameron MM, Acosta-Serrano A, Bern C, Boelaert M, den Boer M, Burza S, Chapman LA, Chaskopoulou A, Coleman M, Courtenay O, Croft S, Das P, Dilger E, Foster G, Garlapati R, Haines L, Harris A, Hemingway J, Hollingsworth TD, Jervis S, Medley G, Miles M, Paine M, Picado A, Poché R, Ready P, Rogers M, Rowland M, Sundar S, de Vlas SJ, Weetman D. Understanding the transmission dynamics of Leishmania donovani to provide robust evidence for interventions to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India. Parasit Vectors. 2016 Jan 27; 9:25. PMID: 26812963.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Le Rutte EA, Coffeng LE, Bontje DM, Hasker EC, Postigo JA, Argaw D, Boelaert MC, De Vlas SJ. Feasibility of eliminating visceral leishmaniasis from the Indian subcontinent: explorations with a set of deterministic age-structured transmission models. Parasit Vectors. 2016 Jan 19; 9:24. PMID: 26787302.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Ravinetto R, De Nys K, Boelaert M, Diro E, Meintjes G, Adoke Y, Tagbor H, Casteels M. Sponsorship in non-commercial clinical trials: definitions, challenges and the role of Good Clinical Practices guidelines. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2015 Dec 30; 15:34. PMID: 26715307.
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    8. Polman K, Becker SL, Alirol E, Bhatta NK, Bhattarai NR, Bottieau E, Bratschi MW, Burza S, Coulibaly JT, Doumbia MN, Horié NS, Jacobs J, Khanal B, Landouré A, Mahendradhata Y, Meheus F, Mertens P, Meyanti F, Murhandarwati EH, N'Goran EK, Peeling RW, Ravinetto R, Rijal S, Sacko M, Saye R, Schneeberger PH, Schurmans C, Silué KD, Thobari JA, Traoré MS, van Lieshout L, van Loen H, Verdonck K, von Müller L, Yansouni CP, Yao JA, Yao PK, Yap P, Boelaert M, Chappuis F, Utzinger J. Erratum to: Diagnosis of neglected tropical diseases among patients with persistent digestive disorders (diarrhoea and/or abdominal pain =14 days): a multi-country, prospective, non-experimental case-control study. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 04; 15:499. PMID: 26537896.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Diro E, Ritmeijer K, Boelaert M, Alves F, Mohammed R, Abongomera C, Ravinetto R, De Crop M, Fikre H, Adera C, Colebunders R, van Loen H, Menten J, Lynen L, Hailu A, van Griensven J. Use of Pentamidine As Secondary Prophylaxis to Prevent Visceral Leishmaniasis Relapse in HIV Infected Patients, the First Twelve Months of a Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015; 9(10):e0004087. PMID: 26431253.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Polman K, Becker SL, Alirol E, Bhatta NK, Bhattarai NR, Bottieau E, Bratschi MW, Burza S, Coulibaly JT, Doumbia MN, Horié NS, Jacobs J, Khanal B, Landouré A, Mahendradhata Y, Meheus F, Mertens P, Meyanti F, Murhandarwati EH, N'Goran EK, Peeling RW, Ravinetto R, Rijal S, Sacko M, Saye R, Schneeberger PH, Schurmans C, Silué KD, Thobari JA, Traoré MS, van Lieshout L, van Loen H, Verdonck K, von Müller L, Yansouni CP, Yao JA, Yao PK, Yap P, Boelaert M, Chappuis F, Utzinger J. Diagnosis of neglected tropical diseases among patients with persistent digestive disorders (diarrhoea and/or abdominal pain =14 days): Pierrea multi-country, prospective, non-experimental case-control study. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 18; 15:338. PMID: 26282537.
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    11. Ostyn B, Uranw S, Bhattarai NR, Das ML, Rai K, Tersago K, Pokhrel Y, Durnez L, Marasini B, Van der Auwera G, Dujardin JC, Coosemans M, Argaw D, Boelaert M, Rijal S. Transmission of Leishmania donovani in the Hills of Eastern Nepal, an Outbreak Investigation in Okhaldhunga and Bhojpur Districts. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015; 9(8):e0003966. PMID: 26252494.
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    12. Mukhtar M, Abdoun A, Ahmed AE, Ghalib H, Reed SG, Boelaert M, Menten J, Khair MM, Howard RF. Diagnostic accuracy of rK28-based immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis: a prospective clinical cohort study in Sudan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Sep; 109(9):594-600. PMID: 26246251.
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    13. Mahajan R, Das P, Isaakidis P, Sunyoto T, Sagili KD, Lima MA, Mitra G, Kumar D, Pandey K, Van Geertruyden JP, Boelaert M, Burza S. Combination Treatment for Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients Coinfected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in India. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Oct 15; 61(8):1255-62. PMID: 26129756.
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    14. Ghosh P, Hasnain MG, Ghosh D, Hossain F, Baker J, Boelaert M, Rijal S, Mondal D. A comparative evaluation of the performance of commercially available rapid immunochromatographic tests for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Jun 16; 8:331. PMID: 26077956.
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    15. Bennis I, De Brouwere V, Ameur B, El Idrissi Laamrani A, Chichaoui S, Hamid S, Boelaert M. Control of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in south-eastern Morocco. Trop Med Int Health. 2015 Oct; 20(10):1297-305. PMID: 25975767.
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    16. Wilson AL, Boelaert M, Kleinschmidt I, Pinder M, Scott TW, Tusting LS, Lindsay SW. Evidence-based vector control? Improving the quality of vector control trials. Trends Parasitol. 2015 Aug; 31(8):380-90. PMID: 25999026.
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    17. Diro E, Lynen L, Assefa M, Takele Y, Mengesha B, Adem E, Mohammed R, Kimutai R, Hailu A, Boelaert M, van Griensven J. Impact of the use of a rapid diagnostic test for visceral leishmaniasis on clinical practice in Ethiopia: a retrospective study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 May; 9(5):e0003738. PMID: 25965564.
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    18. Mpanya A, Hendrickx D, Baloji S, Lumbala C, da Luz RI, Boelaert M, Lutumba P. From health advice to taboo: community perspectives on the treatment of sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a qualitative study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Apr; 9(4):e0003686. PMID: 25856578.
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    19. Picado A, Ostyn B, Rijal S, Sundar S, Singh SP, Chappuis F, Das ML, Khanal B, Gidwani K, Hasker E, Dujardin JC, Vanlerberghe V, Menten J, Coosemans M, Boelaert M. Long-lasting insecticidal nets to prevent visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent; methodological lessons learned from a cluster randomised controlled trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Apr; 9(4):e0003597. PMID: 25856238.
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    20. Perry MR, Prajapati VK, Menten J, Raab A, Feldmann J, Chakraborti D, Sundar S, Fairlamb AH, Boelaert M, Picado A. Arsenic exposure and outcomes of antimonial treatment in visceral leishmaniasis patients in Bihar, India: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Mar; 9(3):e0003518. PMID: 25730310.
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    21. Perry M, Wyllie S, Prajapati V, Menten J, Raab A, Feldmann J, Chakraborti D, Sundar S, Boelaert M, Picado A, Fairlamb A. Arsenic, antimony, and Leishmania: has arsenic contamination of drinking water in India led to treatment- resistant kala-azar? Lancet. 2015 Feb 26; 385 Suppl 1:S80. PMID: 26312902.
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    22. Linsuke S, Nundu S, Mupoyi S, Mukele R, Mukunda F, Kabongo MM, Inocêncio da Luz R, Van Geertruyden JP, Van Sprundel M, Boelaert M, Polman K, Lutumba P. High prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in six health areas of - Kasansa health zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo: short report. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Dec; 8(12):e3387. PMID: 25521351.
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    23. Bottieau E, Mukendi D, Kalo JR, Mpanya A, Lutumba P, Barbé B, Chappuis F, Lunguya O, Boelaert M, Jacobs J. Fatal Chromobacterium violaceum bacteraemia in rural Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. New Microbes New Infect. 2015 Jan; 3:21-3. PMID: 25755887.
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    24. Bhattacharyya T, Ayandeh A, Falconar AK, Sundar S, El-Safi S, Gripenberg MA, Bowes DE, Thunissen C, Singh OP, Kumar R, Ahmed O, Eisa O, Saad A, Silva Pereira S, Boelaert M, Mertens P, Miles MA. IgG1 as a potential biomarker of post-chemotherapeutic relapse in visceral leishmaniasis, and adaptation to a rapid diagnostic test. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Oct; 8(10):e3273. PMID: 25340782.
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    25. Mpanya A, Boelaert M, Baloji S, Matangila J, Lubanza S, Bottieau E, Chappuis F, Lutumba P, Hendrickx D. Diagnostic work-up of neurological syndromes in a rural African setting: knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e110167. PMID: 25340726.
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    26. Diro E, Lynen L, Gebregziabiher B, Assefa A, Lakew W, Belew Z, Hailu A, Boelaert M, van Griensven J. Clinical aspects of paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in North-west Ethiopia. Trop Med Int Health. 2015 Jan; 20(1):8-16. PMID: 25329449.
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    27. Mitashi P, Hasker E, Mbo F, Van Geertruyden JP, Kaswa M, Lumbala C, Boelaert M, Lutumba P. Integration of diagnosis and treatment of sleeping sickness in primary healthcare facilities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Trop Med Int Health. 2015 Jan; 20(1):98-105. PMID: 25329353.
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    28. Kibadi K, Tiendrebeogo A, Ekoue Kinvi B, De Jong B, Boelaert M, Portaels F. [Buruli ulcer in the health districts of the Democratic Republic of Congo from 1950 to 2013: literature review and new distribution map]. Med Sante Trop. 2014 Oct-Dec; 24(4):420-9. PMID: 25547784.
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    29. Malaviya P, Hasker E, Picado A, Mishra M, Van Geertruyden JP, Das ML, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Exposure to Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) sand flies in rural areas of Bihar, India: the role of housing conditions. PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e106771. PMID: 25184542.
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    30. Malaviya P, Picado A, Hasker E, Ostyn B, Kansal S, Singh RP, Shankar R, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: the Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Oct; 43(5):1450-7. PMID: 25186307.
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    31. Chowdhury R, Mondal D, Chowdhury V, Faria S, Alvar J, Nabi SG, Boelaert M, Dash AP. How far are we from visceral leishmaniasis elimination in Bangladesh? An assessment of epidemiological surveillance data. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Aug; 8(8):e3020. PMID: 25144317.
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    32. van Griensven J, Diro E, Lopez-Velez R, Ritmeijer K, Boelaert M, Zijlstra EE, Hailu A, Lynen L. A screen-and-treat strategy targeting visceral leishmaniasis in HIV-infected individuals in endemic East African countries: the way forward? PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Aug; 8(8):e3011. PMID: 25101627.
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    33. Diro E, Lynen L, Ritmeijer K, Boelaert M, Hailu A, van Griensven J. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in East Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Jun; 8(6):e2869. PMID: 24968313.
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    34. Boelaert M, Verdonck K, Menten J, Sunyoto T, van Griensven J, Chappuis F, Rijal S. Rapid tests for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with suspected disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jun 20; (6):CD009135. PMID: 24947503.
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    35. Adel A, Boughoufalah A, Saegerman C, De Deken R, Bouchene Z, Soukehal A, Berkvens D, Boelaert M. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria: an update. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e99207. PMID: 24949958.
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    36. Ostyn B, Hasker E, Dorlo TP, Rijal S, Sundar S, Dujardin JC, Boelaert M. Failure of miltefosine treatment for visceral leishmaniasis in children and men in South-East Asia. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e100220. PMID: 24941345.
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    37. Kaswa MK, Aloni M, Nkuku L, Bakoko B, Lebeke R, Nzita A, Muyembe JJ, de Jong BC, de Rijk P, Verhaegen J, Boelaert M, Ieven M, Van Deun A. Pseudo-outbreak of pre-extensively drug-resistant (Pre-XDR) tuberculosis in Kinshasa: collateral damage caused by false detection of fluoroquinolone resistance by GenoType MTBDRsl. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Aug; 52(8):2876-80. PMID: 24871222.
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    38. Diro E, Lynen L, Mohammed R, Boelaert M, Hailu A, van Griensven J. High parasitological failure rate of visceral leishmaniasis to sodium stibogluconate among HIV co-infected adults in Ethiopia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 May; 8(5):e2875. PMID: 24854196.
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    39. Büscher P, Mertens P, Leclipteux T, Gilleman Q, Jacquet D, Mumba-Ngoyi D, Pyana PP, Boelaert M, Lejon V. Sensitivity and specificity of HAT Sero-K-SeT, a rapid diagnostic test for serodiagnosis of sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: a case-control study. Lancet Glob Health. 2014 Jun; 2(6):e359-63. PMID: 25103304.
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    40. Stauch A, Duerr HP, Picado A, Ostyn B, Sundar S, Rijal S, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC, Eichner M. Model-based investigations of different vector-related intervention strategies to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Apr; 8(4):e2810. PMID: 24762676.
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    41. Kaswa MK, Bisuta S, Kabuya G, Lunguya O, Ndongosieme A, Muyembe JJ, Van Deun A, Boelaert M. Multi drug resistant tuberculosis in Mosango, a rural area in the Democratic Republic of Congo. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e94618. PMID: 24732233.
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    42. Singh OP, Hasker E, Sacks D, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Asymptomatic Leishmania infection: a new challenge for Leishmania control. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 May; 58(10):1424-9. PMID: 24585564.
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    43. Bhattacharyya T, Bowes DE, El-Safi S, Sundar S, Falconar AK, Singh OP, Kumar R, Ahmed O, Boelaert M, Miles MA. Significantly lower anti-Leishmania IgG responses in Sudanese versus Indian visceral leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Feb; 8(2):e2675. PMID: 24587456.
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    44. Picado A, Ostyn B, Singh SP, Uranw S, Hasker E, Rijal S, Sundar S, Boelaert M, Chappuis F. Risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis and asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infection in India and Nepal. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e87641. PMID: 24498159.
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    45. Hasker E, Malaviya P, Gidwani K, Picado A, Ostyn B, Kansal S, Singh RP, Singh OP, Chourasia A, Kumar Singh A, Shankar R, Wilson ME, Khanal B, Rijal S, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Strong association between serological status and probability of progression to clinical visceral leishmaniasis in prospective cohort studies in India and Nepal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014; 8(1):e2657. PMID: 24466361.
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    46. Dorlo TP, Rijal S, Ostyn B, de Vries PJ, Singh R, Bhattarai N, Uranw S, Dujardin JC, Boelaert M, Beijnen JH, Huitema AD. Failure of miltefosine in visceral leishmaniasis is associated with low drug exposure. J Infect Dis. 2014 Jul 01; 210(1):146-53. PMID: 24443541.
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    47. Maketa V, Vuna M, Baloji S, Lubanza S, Hendrickx D, Inocêncio da Luz RA, Boelaert M, Lutumba P. Perceptions of health, health care and community-oriented health interventions in poor urban communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e84314. PMID: 24367653.
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    48. Mavinga Phanzu D, Suykerbuyk P, Saunderson P, Ngwala Lukanu P, Masamba Minuku JB, Imposo DB, Mbadu Diengidi B, Kayinua M, Tamfum Muyembe JJ, Tshindele Lutumba P, de Jong BC, Portaels F, Boelaert M. Burden of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) and the underreporting ratio in the territory of Songololo, Democratic Republic of Congo. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013; 7(12):e2563. PMID: 24340112.
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    49. Meheus F, Abuzaid AA, Baltussen R, Younis BM, Balasegaram M, Khalil EAG, Boelaert M, Musa AM. The economic burden of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan: an assessment of provider and household costs. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Dec; 89(6):1146-1153. PMID: 24189368.
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    50. Mitashi P, Hasker E, Ngoyi DM, Pyana PP, Lejon V, Van der Veken W, Lutumba P, Büscher P, Boelaert M, Deborggraeve S. Diagnostic accuracy of loopamp Trypanosoma brucei detection kit for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis in clinical samples. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013; 7(10):e2504. PMID: 24147176.
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    51. Kumar D, Khanal B, Tiwary P, Mudavath SL, Tiwary NK, Singh R, Koirala K, Boelaert M, Rijal S, Sundar S. Comparative evaluation of blood and serum samples in rapid immunochromatographic tests for visceral leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Dec; 51(12):3955-9. PMID: 24048530.
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    52. Menten J, Boelaert M, Lesaffre E. Bayesian meta-analysis of diagnostic tests allowing for imperfect reference standards. Stat Med. 2013 Dec 30; 32(30):5398-413. PMID: 24003003.
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    53. Dujardin JC, Bhattarai NR, Rai K, Vanaerschot M, Uranw S, Ostyn BA, Boelaert M, Rijal S. Reply to Das. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Nov; 57(9):1365-6. PMID: 23943823.
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    54. Dorlo TP, Ostyn BA, Beijnen JH, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC, Rijal S. Reply to Arya and Agarwal. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Sep; 57(6):917-8. PMID: 23759350.
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    55. Yansouni CP, Bottieau E, Lutumba P, Winkler AS, Lynen L, Büscher P, Jacobs J, Gillet P, Lejon V, Alirol E, Polman K, Utzinger J, Miles MA, Peeling RW, Muyembe JJ, Chappuis F, Boelaert M. Rapid diagnostic tests for neurological infections in central Africa. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Jun; 13(6):546-58. PMID: 23623369.
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    56. Srivastava P, Gidwani K, Picado A, Van der Auwera G, Tiwary P, Ostyn B, Dujardin JC, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Molecular and serological markers of Leishmania donovani infection in healthy individuals from endemic areas of Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2013 May; 18(5):548-54. PMID: 23464581.
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    57. Ostyn B, Malaviya P, Hasker E, Uranw S, Singh RP, Rijal S, Sundar S, Dujardin JC, Boelaert M. Retrospective Quarterly Cohort Monitoring for patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent: outcomes of a pilot project. Trop Med Int Health. 2013 Jun; 18(6):725-33. PMID: 23464638.
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    58. van Griensven J, Diro E, Lopez-Velez R, Boelaert M, Lynen L, Zijlstra E, Dujardin JC, Hailu A. HIV-1 protease inhibitors for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV-co-infected individuals. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Mar; 13(3):251-9. PMID: 23427890.
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    59. Bhattacharyya T, Boelaert M, Miles MA. Comparison of visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic antigens in African and Asian Leishmania donovani reveals extensive diversity and region-specific polymorphisms. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013; 7(2):e2057. PMID: 23469296.
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    60. Uranw S, Meheus F, Baltussen R, Rijal S, Boelaert M. The household costs of visceral leishmaniasis care in south-eastern Nepal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013; 7(2):e2062. PMID: 23469298.
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    61. Rijal S, Ostyn B, Uranw S, Rai K, Bhattarai NR, Dorlo TP, Beijnen JH, Vanaerschot M, Decuypere S, Dhakal SS, Das ML, Karki P, Singh R, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC. Increasing failure of miltefosine in the treatment of Kala-azar in Nepal and the potential role of parasite drug resistance, reinfection, or noncompliance. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Jun; 56(11):1530-8. PMID: 23425958.
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    62. Hasker E, Kansal S, Malaviya P, Gidwani K, Picado A, Singh RP, Chourasia A, Singh AK, Shankar R, Menten J, Wilson ME, Wilson ME, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Latent infection with Leishmania donovani in highly endemic villages in Bihar, India. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013; 7(2):e2053. PMID: 23459501.
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    63. Becker SL, Vogt J, Knopp S, Panning M, Warhurst DC, Polman K, Marti H, von Müller L, Yansouni CP, Jacobs J, Bottieau E, Sacko M, Rijal S, Meyanti F, Miles MA, Boelaert M, Lutumba P, van Lieshout L, N'Goran EK, Chappuis F, Utzinger J. Persistent digestive disorders in the tropics: causative infectious pathogens and reference diagnostic tests. BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Jan 24; 13:37. PMID: 23347408.
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    64. Uranw S, Hasker E, Roy L, Meheus F, Das ML, Bhattarai NR, Rijal S, Boelaert M. An outbreak investigation of visceral leishmaniasis among residents of Dharan town, eastern Nepal, evidence for urban transmission of Leishmania donovani. BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Jan 18; 13:21. PMID: 23327548.
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    65. Malaviya P, Hasker E, Singh RP, Van Geertruyden JP, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Village health workers in Bihar, India: an untapped resource in the struggle against kala-azar. Trop Med Int Health. 2013 Feb; 18(2):188-93. PMID: 23279554.
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    66. Marcotty T, Thys E, Conrad P, Godfroid J, Craig P, Zinsstag J, Meheus F, Boukary AR, Badé MA, Sahibi H, Filali H, Hendrickx S, Pissang C, Van Herp M, van der Roost D, Thys S, Hendrickx D, Claes M, Demeulenaere T, van Mierlo J, Dehoux JP, Boelaert M. Intersectoral collaboration between the medical and veterinary professions in low-resource societies: The role of research and training institutions. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013 May; 36(3):233-9. PMID: 23260374.
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    67. Adams ER, Jacquet D, Schoone G, Gidwani K, Boelaert M, Cunningham J. Leishmaniasis direct agglutination test: using pictorials as training materials to reduce inter-reader variability and improve accuracy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012; 6(12):e1946. PMID: 23272257.
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    68. Hasker E, Lutumba P, Chappuis F, Kande V, Potet J, De Weggheleire A, Kambo C, Depoortere E, Pécoul B, Boelaert M. Human African trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a looming emergency? PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012; 6(12):e1950. PMID: 23272260.
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    69. Uranw S, Ostyn B, Dorlo TP, Hasker E, Dujardin B, Dujardin JC, Rijal S, Boelaert M. Adherence to miltefosine treatment for visceral leishmaniasis under routine conditions in Nepal. Trop Med Int Health. 2013 Feb; 18(2):179-87. PMID: 23199340.
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    71. Mueller YK, Nackers F, Ahmed KA, Boelaert M, Djoumessi JC, Eltigani R, Gorashi HA, Hammam O, Ritmeijer K, Salih N, Worku D, Etard JF, Chappuis F. Burden of visceral leishmaniasis in villages of eastern Gedaref State, Sudan: an exhaustive cross-sectional survey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012; 6(11):e1872. PMID: 23133683.
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    74. Ravinetto RM, Boelaert M, Jacobs J, Pouget C, Luyckx C. Poor-quality medical products: time to address substandards, not only counterfeits. Trop Med Int Health. 2012 Nov; 17(11):1412-6. PMID: 22909082.
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    76. Picado A, Rijal S, Sundar S, Boelaert M. Visceral leishmaniasis treatment in the Indian subcontinent: how to reach the most vulnerable. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2012 Aug; 10(8):839-41. PMID: 23030320.
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    77. Hasker E, Mpanya A, Makabuza J, Mbo F, Lumbala C, Kumpel J, Claeys Y, Kande V, Ravinetto R, Menten J, Lutumba P, Boelaert M. Treatment outcomes for human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: analysis of routine program data from the world's largest sleeping sickness control program. Trop Med Int Health. 2012 Sep; 17(9):1127-32. PMID: 22809002.
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    78. Picado A, Dash AP, Bhattacharya S, Boelaert M. Vector control interventions for visceral leishmaniasis elimination initiative in South Asia, 2005-2010. Indian J Med Res. 2012 Jul; 136(1):22-31. PMID: 22885260.
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    79. Vanaerschot M, Decuypere S, Downing T, Imamura H, Stark O, De Doncker S, Roy S, Ostyn B, Maes L, Khanal B, Boelaert M, Schönian G, Berriman M, Chappuis F, Dujardin JC, Sundar S, Rijal S. Genetic markers for SSG resistance in Leishmania donovani and SSG treatment failure in visceral leishmaniasis patients of the Indian subcontinent. J Infect Dis. 2012 Sep 01; 206(5):752-5. PMID: 22753945.
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    80. Meheus F, Rijal S, Lutumba P, Hendrickx D, Boelaert M. NTD control and health system strengthening. Lancet. 2012 Jun 09; 379(9832):2149-50. PMID: 22682461.
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    81. Sundar S, Singh A, Rai M, Prajapati VK, Singh AK, Ostyn B, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC, Chakravarty J. Efficacy of miltefosine in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India after a decade of use. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Aug; 55(4):543-50. PMID: 22573856.
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    82. Singh OP, Gidwani K, Kumar R, Nylén S, Jones SL, Boelaert M, Sacks D, Sundar S. Reassessment of immune correlates in human visceral leishmaniasis as defined by cytokine release in whole blood. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012 Jun; 19(6):961-6. PMID: 22539471.
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    83. Das M, Roy L, Picado A, Kroeger A, Rijal S, Boelaert M. Deltamethrin and permethrin residue on long-lasting insecticidal nets after 18 months of use in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area in Nepal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Apr; 106(4):230-4. PMID: 22381627.
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    84. Mpanya A, Hendrickx D, Vuna M, Kanyinda A, Lumbala C, Tshilombo V, Mitashi P, Luboya O, Kande V, Boelaert M, Lefèvre P, Lutumba P. Should I get screened for sleeping sickness? A qualitative study in Kasai province, Democratic Republic of Congo. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Jan; 6(1):e1467. PMID: 22272367.
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    85. Phanzu DM, Suykerbuyk P, Imposo DB, Lukanu PN, Minuku JB, Lehman LF, Saunderson P, de Jong BC, Lutumba PT, Portaels F, Boelaert M. Effect of a control project on clinical profiles and outcomes in buruli ulcer: a before/after study in Bas-Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Dec; 5(12):e1402. PMID: 22216362.
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    86. Uranw S, Ostyn B, Rijal A, Devkota S, Khanal B, Menten J, Boelaert M, Rijal S. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in Nepal: a retrospective cohort study (2000-2010). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Dec; 5(12):e1433. PMID: 22206030.
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    87. Picado A, Singh SP, Vanlerberghe V, Uranw S, Ostyn B, Kaur H, Das ML, Sundar S, Rijal S, Tungu P, Boelaert M, Rowland M. Residual activity and integrity of PermaNet® 2.0 after 24 months of household use in a community randomised trial of long lasting insecticidal nets against visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Mar; 106(3):150-9. PMID: 22137191.
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    88. Phanzu DM, Mahema RL, Suykerbuyk P, Imposo DH, Lehman LF, Nduwamahoro E, Meyers WM, Boelaert M, Portaels F. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer) on the face: a comparative analysis of 13 clinically suspected cases from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Dec; 85(6):1100-5. PMID: 22144452.
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    89. Stauch A, Sarkar RR, Picado A, Ostyn B, Sundar S, Rijal S, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC, Duerr HP. Visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent: modelling epidemiology and control. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Nov; 5(11):e1405. PMID: 22140589.
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    91. Perry MR, Wyllie S, Prajapati VK, Feldmann J, Sundar S, Boelaert M, Fairlamb AH. Visceral leishmaniasis and arsenic: an ancient poison contributing to antimonial treatment failure in the Indian subcontinent? PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Sep; 5(9):e1227. PMID: 21980542.
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    92. Gidwani K, Picado A, Rijal S, Singh SP, Roy L, Volfova V, Andersen EW, Uranw S, Ostyn B, Sudarshan M, Chakravarty J, Volf P, Sundar S, Boelaert M, Rogers ME. Serological markers of sand fly exposure to evaluate insecticidal nets against visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal: a cluster-randomized trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Sep; 5(9):e1296. PMID: 21931871.
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    93. Baly A, Toledo ME, Rodriguez K, Benitez JR, Rodriguez M, Boelaert M, Vanlerberghe V, Van der Stuyft P. Costs of dengue prevention and incremental cost of dengue outbreak control in Guantanamo, Cuba. Trop Med Int Health. 2012 Jan; 17(1):123-32. PMID: 21906216.
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    94. Kumar N, Singh SP, Mondal D, Joshi A, Das P, Sundar S, Kroeger A, Hirve S, Siddiqui NA, Boelaert M. How do health care providers deal with kala-azar in the Indian subcontinent? Indian J Med Res. 2011 Sep; 134:349-55. PMID: 21985818.
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    95. Bhandari GP, Angdembe MR, Rijal S, Boelaert M. Will visceral leishmaniasis be eliminated from Nepal? A review of recent (1994-2006) control efforts. Nepal Med Coll J. 2011 Sep; 13(3):220-5. PMID: 22808821.
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    96. Malaviya P, Singh RP, Singh SP, Hasker E, Ostyn B, Shankar R, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Monitoring drug effectiveness in kala-azar in Bihar, India: cost and feasibility of periodic random surveys vs. a health service-based reporting system. Trop Med Int Health. 2011 Sep; 16(9):1159-66. PMID: 21624015.
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    97. Gidwani K, Jones S, Kumar R, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Interferon-gamma release assay (modified QuantiFERON) as a potential marker of infection for Leishmania donovani, a proof of concept study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Apr 19; 5(4):e1042. PMID: 21526219.
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    98. Hasker E, Lumbala C, Mbo F, Mpanya A, Kande V, Lutumba P, Boelaert M. Health care-seeking behaviour and diagnostic delays for Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Trop Med Int Health. 2011 Jul; 16(7):869-74. PMID: 21447063.
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    99. Malaviya P, Picado A, Singh SP, Hasker E, Singh RP, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Visceral leishmaniasis in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India from 1990 to 2008. PLoS One. 2011 Mar 04; 6(3):e14751. PMID: 21394195.
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    100. Ravinetto R, Buvé A, Halidou T, Lutumba P, Talisuna A, Juffrie M, D'Alessandro U, Boelaert M. Double ethical review of North-South collaborative clinical research: hidden paternalism or real partnership? Trop Med Int Health. 2011 Apr; 16(4):527-30. PMID: 21410849.
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    101. van Griensven J, Boelaert M. Combination therapy for visceral leishmaniasis. Lancet. 2011 Feb 05; 377(9764):443-4. PMID: 21255829.
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    102. Picado A, Singh SP, Rijal S, Sundar S, Ostyn B, Chappuis F, Uranw S, Gidwani K, Khanal B, Rai M, Paudel IS, Das ML, Kumar R, Srivastava P, Dujardin JC, Vanlerberghe V, Andersen EW, Davies CR, Boelaert M. Longlasting insecticidal nets for prevention of Leishmania donovani infection in India and Nepal: paired cluster randomised trial. BMJ. 2010 Dec 29; 341:c6760. PMID: 21190965.
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    103. Gidwani K, Picado A, Ostyn B, Singh SP, Kumar R, Khanal B, Lejon V, Chappuis F, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Persistence of Leishmania donovani antibodies in past visceral leishmaniasis cases in India. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Feb; 18(2):346-8. PMID: 21159922.
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    104. Khanal B, Rijal S, Ostyn B, Picado A, Gidwani K, Menten J, Jacquet D, Lejon V, Chappuis F, Boelaert M. Serological markers for leishmania donovani infection in Nepal: Agreement between direct agglutination test and rK39 ELISA. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Nov; 15(11):1390-4. PMID: 21998875.
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    105. Dinesh DS, Das ML, Picado A, Roy L, Rijal S, Singh SP, Das P, Boelaert M, Coosemans M. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes in visceral leishmaniasis endemic districts in India and Nepal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Oct 26; 4(10):e859. PMID: 21049013.
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    106. Dujardin JC, Herrera S, do Rosario V, Arevalo J, Boelaert M, Carrasco HJ, Correa-Oliveira R, Garcia L, Gotuzzo E, Gyorkos TW, Kalergis AM, Kouri G, Larraga V, Lutumba P, Macias Garcia MA, Manrique-Saide PC, Modabber F, Nieto A, Pluschke G, Robello C, Rojas de Arias A, Rumbo M, Santos Preciado JI, Sundar S, Torres J, Torrico F, Van der Stuyft P, Victoir K, Olesen OF. Research priorities for neglected infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean region. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Oct 26; 4(10):e780. PMID: 21049009.
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    107. Boelaert M, Meheus F, Robays J, Lutumba P. Socio-economic aspects of neglected diseases: sleeping sickness and visceral leishmaniasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010 Oct; 104(7):535-42. PMID: 21092391.
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    108. Meheus F, Balasegaram M, Olliaro P, Sundar S, Rijal S, Faiz MA, Boelaert M. Cost-effectiveness analysis of combination therapies for visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Sep 07; 4(9). PMID: 20838649.
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    109. Burniston I, Roy L, Picado A, Das M, Rijal S, Rogers M, Coosemans M, Boelaert M, Davies C, Cameron M. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to identify host-feeding preferences of Phlebotomus species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal. J Med Entomol. 2010 Sep; 47(5):902-6. PMID: 20939388.
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    110. Ejara ED, Lynen L, Boelaert M, Van Griensven J. Challenges in HIV and visceral Leishmania co-infection: future research directions. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Oct; 15(10):1266-7. PMID: 20723183.
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    111. Cavalli A, Bamba SI, Traore MN, Boelaert M, Coulibaly Y, Polman K, Pirard M, Van Dormael M. Interactions between Global Health Initiatives and country health systems: the case of a neglected tropical diseases control program in Mali. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Aug 17; 4(8):e798. PMID: 20808908.
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    112. Hasker E, Lutumba P, Mumba D, Lejon V, Büscher P, Kande V, Muyembe JJ, Menten J, Robays J, Boelaert M. Diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of serological tests on filter paper samples for outbreak detection of T.b. gambiense human African trypanosomiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Aug; 83(2):374-9. PMID: 20682885.
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    113. Kibadi K, Boelaert M, Fraga AG, Kayinua M, Longatto-Filho A, Minuku JB, Mputu-Yamba JB, Muyembe-Tamfum JJ, Pedrosa J, Roux JJ, Meyers WM, Portaels F. Response to treatment in a prospective cohort of patients with large ulcerated lesions suspected to be Buruli Ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans disease). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Jul 06; 4(7):e736. PMID: 20625556.
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    114. Mishra RN, Singh SP, Vanlerberghe V, Sundar S, Boelaert M, Lefèvre P. Lay perceptions of kala-azar, mosquitoes and bed nets in Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Jul; 15 Suppl 2:36-41. PMID: 20591080.
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    115. Meheus F, Boelaert M. The burden of visceral leishmaniasis in South Asia. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Jul; 15 Suppl 2:1-3. PMID: 20591079.
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    116. Hasker E, Singh SP, Malaviya P, Singh RP, Shankar R, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Management of visceral leishmaniasis in rural primary health care services in Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Jul; 15 Suppl 2:55-62. PMID: 20591081.
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    117. Mahendradhata Y, Probandari A, Ahmad RA, Utarini A, Trisnantoro L, Lindholm L, van der Werf MJ, Kimerling M, Boelaert M, Johns B, Van der Stuyft P. The incremental cost-effectiveness of engaging private practitioners to refer tuberculosis suspects to DOTS services in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Jun; 82(6):1131-9. PMID: 20519613.
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    118. Khanal B, Picado A, Bhattarai NR, Van Der Auwera G, Das ML, Ostyn B, Davies CR, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC, Rijal S. Spatial analysis of Leishmania donovani exposure in humans and domestic animals in a recent kala azar focus in Nepal. Parasitology. 2010 Sep; 137(11):1597-603. PMID: 20459877.
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    119. Singh SP, Picado A, Boelaert M, Gidwani K, Andersen EW, Ostyn B, Meheus F, Rai M, Chappuis F, Davies C, Sundar S. The epidemiology of Leishmania donovani infection in high transmission foci in India. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Jul; 15 Suppl 2:12-20. PMID: 20487420.
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    120. Rijal S, Uranw S, Chappuis F, Picado A, Khanal B, Paudel IS, Andersen EW, Meheus F, Ostyn B, Das ML, Davies C, Boelaert M. Epidemiology of Leishmania donovani infection in high-transmission foci in Nepal. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Jul; 15 Suppl 2:21-8. PMID: 20487421.
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    121. Singh SP, Hasker E, Picado A, Gidwani K, Malaviya P, Singh RP, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis in India: further evidence on the role of domestic animals. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Jul; 15 Suppl 2:29-35. PMID: 20487424.
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    122. Sundar S, Arora R, Singh SP, Boelaert M, Varghese B. Household cost-of-illness of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Jul; 15 Suppl 2:50-4. PMID: 20487419.
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    123. Clements MF, Gidwani K, Kumar R, Hostomska J, Dinesh DS, Kumar V, Das P, Müller I, Hamilton G, Volfova V, Boelaert M, Das M, Rijal S, Picado A, Volf P, Sundar S, Davies CR, Rogers ME. Measurement of recent exposure to Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Indian visceral Leishmaniasis, by using human antibody responses to sand fly saliva. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 May; 82(5):801-7. PMID: 20439958.
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    124. Lutumba P, Kande V, Boelaert M, Kayembe JM, Mampunza S. Research capacity strengthening in the DRC. Lancet. 2010 Mar 27; 375(9720):1080. PMID: 20346811.
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    125. Picado A, Das ML, Kumar V, Dinesh DS, Rijal S, Singh SP, Das P, Coosemans M, Boelaert M, Davies C. Phlebotomus argentipes seasonal patterns in India and Nepal. J Med Entomol. 2010 Mar; 47(2):283-6. PMID: 20380311.
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    126. van Griensven J, Balasegaram M, Meheus F, Alvar J, Lynen L, Boelaert M. Combination therapy for visceral leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010 Mar; 10(3):184-94. PMID: 20185097.
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    127. Tuyisenge L, Ndimubanzi CP, Ndayisaba G, Muganga N, Menten J, Boelaert M, Van den Ende J. Evaluation of latent class analysis and decision thresholds to guide the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis in a Rwandan reference hospital. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Feb; 29(2):e11-8. PMID: 19935116.
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    128. Bhattarai NR, Van der Auwera G, Rijal S, Picado A, Speybroeck N, Khanal B, De Doncker S, Das ML, Ostyn B, Davies C, Coosemans M, Berkvens D, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC. Domestic animals and epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis, Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Feb; 16(2):231-7. PMID: 20113552.
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    129. Mumba Ngoyi D, Lejon V, Pyana P, Boelaert M, Ilunga M, Menten J, Mulunda JP, Van Nieuwenhove S, Muyembe Tamfum JJ, Büscher P. How to shorten patient follow-up after treatment for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness. J Infect Dis. 2010 Feb 01; 201(3):453-63. PMID: 20047500.
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    130. Bhattarai NR, Dujardin JC, Rijal S, De Doncker S, Boelaert M, Van der Auwera G. Development and evaluation of different PCR-based typing methods for discrimination of Leishmania donovani isolates from Nepal. Parasitology. 2010 May; 137(6):947-57. PMID: 20109247.
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    131. Lejon V, Ngoyi DM, Boelaert M, Büscher P. A CATT negative result after treatment for human African trypanosomiasis is no indication for cure. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Jan 26; 4(1):e590. PMID: 20126270.
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    132. Picado A, Das ML, Kumar V, Kesari S, Dinesh DS, Roy L, Rijal S, Das P, Rowland M, Sundar S, Coosemans M, Boelaert M, Davies CR. Effect of village-wide use of long-lasting insecticidal nets on visceral Leishmaniasis vectors in India and Nepal: a cluster randomized trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Jan 26; 4(1):e587. PMID: 20126269.
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    133. Romero GA, Boelaert M. Control of visceral leishmaniasis in latin america-a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Jan 19; 4(1):e584. PMID: 20098726.
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    134. Van den Ende J, Mugabekazi J, Moreira J, Seryange E, Basinga P, Bisoffi Z, Menten J, Boelaert M. Effect of applying a treatment threshold in a population. An example of pulmonary tuberculosis in Rwanda. J Eval Clin Pract. 2010 Jun; 16(3):499-508. PMID: 20074302.
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    135. Hasker E, Mitashi P, Baelmans R, Lutumba P, Jacquet D, Lejon V, Kande V, Declercq J, Van der Veken W, Boelaert M. A new format of the CATT test for the detection of human African Trypanosomiasis, designed for use in peripheral health facilities. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Feb; 15(2):263-7. PMID: 20002614.
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    136. Picado A, Kumar V, Das M, Burniston I, Roy L, Suman R, Dinesh D, Coosemans M, Sundar S, Shreekant K, Boelaert M, Davies C, Cameron M. Effect of untreated bed nets on blood-fed Phlebotomus argentipes in kala-azar endemic foci in Nepal and India. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 Dec; 104(8):1183-6. PMID: 20140382.
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    137. Vanlerberghe V, Singh SP, Paudel IS, Ostyn B, Picado A, Sánchez A, Rijal S, Sundar S, Davies C, Boelaert M. Determinants of bednet ownership and use in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas of the Indian subcontinent. Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Jan; 15(1):60-7. PMID: 19917036.
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    138. Das ML, Roy L, Rijal S, Paudel IS, Picado A, Kroeger A, Petzold M, Davies C, Boelaert M. Comparative study of kala-azar vector control measures in eastern Nepal. Acta Trop. 2010 Feb; 113(2):162-6. PMID: 19879851.
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    139. Joshi AB, Das ML, Akhter S, Chowdhury R, Mondal D, Kumar V, Das P, Kroeger A, Boelaert M, Petzold M. Chemical and environmental vector control as a contribution to the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian subcontinent: cluster randomized controlled trials in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. BMC Med. 2009 Oct 05; 7:54. PMID: 19804620.
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    140. Rijal S, Bhandari S, Koirala S, Singh R, Khanal B, Loutan L, Dujardin JC, Boelaert M, Chappuis F. Clinical risk factors for therapeutic failure in kala-azar patients treated with pentavalent antimonials in Nepal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Mar; 104(3):225-9. PMID: 19726065.
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    141. Lynen L, An S, Koole O, Thai S, Ros S, De Munter P, Sculier D, Arnould L, Fransen K, Menten J, Boelaert M, Van den Ende J, Colebunders R. An algorithm to optimize viral load testing in HIV-positive patients with suspected first-line antiretroviral therapy failure in Cambodia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Sep 01; 52(1):40-8. PMID: 19550349.
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    142. Baly A, Toledo ME, Vanlerberghe V, Ceballos E, Reyes A, Sanchez I, Carvajal M, Maso R, La Rosa M, Denis O, Boelaert M, Van der Stuyft P. Cost-effectiveness of a community-based approach intertwined with a vertical Aedes control program. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Jul; 81(1):88-93. PMID: 19556572.
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    143. Kibadi K, Boelaert M, Kayinua M, Minuku JB, Muyembe-Tamfum JJ, Portaels F, Lefèvre P. Therapeutic itineraries of patients with ulcerated forms of Mycobacterium ulcerans (Buruli ulcer) disease in a rural health zone in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Sep; 14(9):1110-6. PMID: 19563476.
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    144. Boelaert M, Meheus F, Sanchez A, Singh SP, Vanlerberghe V, Picado A, Meessen B, Sundar S. The poorest of the poor: a poverty appraisal of households affected by visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Jun; 14(6):639-44. PMID: 19392741.
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    145. Bhattarai NR, Das ML, Rijal S, van der Auwera G, Picado A, Khanal B, Roy L, Speybroeck N, Berkvens D, Davies CR, Coosemans M, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC. Natural infection of Phlebotomus argentipes with Leishmania and other trypanosomatids in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic region of Nepal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Nov; 103(11):1087-92. PMID: 19345387.
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    146. Gidwani K, Rai M, Chakravarty J, Boelaert M, Sundar S. Evaluation of leishmanin skin test in Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Apr; 80(4):566-7. PMID: 19346376.
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    147. Maurer-Cecchini A, Decuypere S, Chappuis F, Alexandrenne C, De Doncker S, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC, Loutan L, Dayer JM, Tulliano G, Arevalo J, Llanos-Cuentas A, Chizzolini C. Immunological determinants of clinical outcome in Peruvian patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis treated with pentavalent antimonials. Infect Immun. 2009 May; 77(5):2022-9. PMID: 19237520.
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    148. Bhattarai NR, Van der Auwera G, Khanal B, De Doncker S, Rijal S, Das ML, Uranw S, Ostyn B, Praet N, Speybroeck N, Picado A, Davies C, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC. PCR and direct agglutination as Leishmania infection markers among healthy Nepalese subjects living in areas endemic for Kala-Azar. Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Apr; 14(4):404-11. PMID: 19228350.
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    149. Mumba Ngoyi D, Lejon V, N'Siesi FX, Boelaert M, Büscher P. Comparison of operational criteria for treatment outcome in gambiense human African trypanosomiasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Apr; 14(4):438-44. PMID: 19228348.
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    150. Mondal D, Singh SP, Kumar N, Joshi A, Sundar S, Das P, Siddhivinayak H, Kroeger A, Boelaert M. Visceral leishmaniasis elimination programme in India, Bangladesh, and Nepal: reshaping the case finding/case management strategy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009; 3(1):e355. PMID: 19159009.
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    151. Mahendradhata Y, Ahmad RA, Lefèvre P, Boelaert M, Van der Stuyft P. Barriers for introducing HIV testing among tuberculosis patients in Jogjakarta, Indonesia: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2008 Nov 12; 8:385. PMID: 19014468.
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    152. Sieleunou I, Souleymanou M, Schönenberger AM, Menten J, Boelaert M. Determinants of survival in AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy in a rural centre in the Far-North Province, Cameroon. Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Jan; 14(1):36-43. PMID: 19017309.
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    153. Menten J, Boelaert M, Lesaffre E. Bayesian latent class models with conditionally dependent diagnostic tests: a case study. Stat Med. 2008 Sep 30; 27(22):4469-88. PMID: 18551515.
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    154. Deborggraeve S, Boelaert M, Rijal S, De Doncker S, Dujardin JC, Herdewijn P, Büscher P. Diagnostic accuracy of a new Leishmania PCR for clinical visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal and its role in diagnosis of disease. Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Nov; 13(11):1378-83. PMID: 18803611.
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    155. Boulle A, Hilderbrand K, Menten J, Coetzee D, Ford N, Matthys F, Boelaert M, Van der Stuyft P. Exploring HIV risk perception and behaviour in the context of antiretroviral treatment: results from a township household survey. AIDS Care. 2008 Aug; 20(7):771-81. PMID: 18728984.
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    156. Dujardin JC, Campino L, Cañavate C, Dedet JP, Gradoni L, Soteriadou K, Mazeris A, Ozbel Y, Boelaert M. Spread of vector-borne diseases and neglect of Leishmaniasis, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Jul; 14(7):1013-8. PMID: 18598618.
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    157. Lejon V, Roger I, Mumba Ngoyi D, Menten J, Robays J, N'siesi FX, Bisser S, Boelaert M, Büscher P. Novel markers for treatment outcome in late-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jul 01; 47(1):15-22. PMID: 18494605.
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    158. Ostyn B, Vanlerberghe V, Picado A, Dinesh DS, Sundar S, Chappuis F, Rijal S, Dujardin JC, Coosemans M, Boelaert M, Davies C. Vector control by insecticide-treated nets in the fight against visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent, what is the evidence? Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Aug; 13(8):1073-85. PMID: 18564350.
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    159. Mahendradhata Y, Ahmad RA, Kusuma TA, Boelaert M, Van der Werf MJ, Kimerling ME, Van der Stuyft P. Voluntary counselling and testing uptake and HIV prevalence among tuberculosis patients in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Oct; 102(10):1003-10. PMID: 18571213.
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    160. Robays J, Nyamowala G, Sese C, Betu Ku Mesu Kande V, Lutumba P, Van der Veken W, Boelaert M. High failure rates of melarsoprol for sleeping sickness, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Jun; 14(6):966-7. PMID: 18507916.
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    161. Dinesh DS, DAS P, Picado A, Davies C, Speybroeck N, Boelaert M, Coosemans M. The efficacy of indoor CDC light traps for collecting the sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes, vector of Leishmania donovani. Med Vet Entomol. 2008 Jun; 22(2):120-3. PMID: 18498610.
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    162. Dinesh DS, Das P, Picado A, Davies C, Speybroeck N, Ostyn B, Boelaert M, Coosemans M. Long-lasting insecticidal nets fail at household level to reduce abundance of sandfly vector Phlebotomus argentipes in treated houses in Bihar (India). Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Jul; 13(7):953-8. PMID: 18482197.
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    163. Menten J, Boelaert M. The ethics of non-inferiority trials. Lancet. 2008 Mar 15; 371(9616):896; author reply 896-7. PMID: 18342679.
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    164. Mondal D, Alam MS, Karim Z, Haque R, Boelaert M, Kroeger A. Present situation of vector-control management in Bangladesh: a wake up call. Health Policy. 2008 Sep; 87(3):369-76. PMID: 18342389.
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    165. Schönian G, Mauricio I, Gramiccia M, Cañavate C, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC. Leishmaniases in the Mediterranean in the era of molecular epidemiology. Trends Parasitol. 2008 Mar; 24(3):135-42. PMID: 18262469.
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    166. Robays J, Raguenaud ME, Josenando T, Boelaert M. Eflornithine is a cost-effective alternative to melarsoprol for the treatment of second-stage human West African trypanosomiasis in Caxito, Angola. Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Feb; 13(2):265-71. PMID: 18304274.
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    167. Llanos-Cuentas A, Tulliano G, Araujo-Castillo R, Miranda-Verastegui C, Santamaria-Castrellon G, Ramirez L, Lazo M, De Doncker S, Boelaert M, Robays J, Dujardin JC, Arevalo J, Chappuis F. Clinical and parasite species risk factors for pentavalent antimonial treatment failure in cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 15; 46(2):223-31. PMID: 18171254.
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    168. Sundar S, Mondal D, Rijal S, Bhattacharya S, Ghalib H, Kroeger A, Boelaert M, Desjeux P, Richter-Airijoki H, Harms G. Implementation research to support the initiative on the elimination of kala azar from Bangladesh, India and Nepal--the challenges for diagnosis and treatment. Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Jan; 13(1):2-5. PMID: 18290995.
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    169. Das ML, Singh SP, Vanlerberghe V, Rijal S, Rai M, Karki P, Sundar S, Boelaert M. Population preference of net texture prior to bed net trial in Kala-Azar-endemic areas. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2007 Dec 12; 1(3):e100. PMID: 18160976.
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    170. Chappuis F, Sundar S, Hailu A, Ghalib H, Rijal S, Peeling RW, Alvar J, Boelaert M. Visceral leishmaniasis: what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control? Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007 Nov; 5(11):873-82. PMID: 17938629.
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    171. Raguenaud ME, Jansson A, Vanlerberghe V, Van der Auwera G, Deborggraeve S, Dujardin JC, Orfanos G, Reid T, Boelaert M. Epidemiology and clinical features of patients with visceral leishmaniasis treated by an MSF clinic in Bakool region, Somalia, 2004-2006. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2007 Oct 31; 1(1):e85. PMID: 17989791.
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    172. Boelaert M, El-Safi S, Hailu A, Mukhtar M, Rijal S, Sundar S, Wasunna M, Aseffa A, Mbui J, Menten J, Desjeux P, Peeling RW. Diagnostic tests for kala-azar: a multi-centre study of the freeze-dried DAT, rK39 strip test and KAtex in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Jan; 102(1):32-40. PMID: 17942129.
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    173. Mahendradhata Y, Utarini A, Lazuardi U, Boelaert M, Stuyft PV. Private practitioners and tuberculosis case detection in Jogjakarta, Indonesia: actual role and potential. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Oct; 12(10):1218-24. PMID: 17956504.
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    174. Lutumba P, Meheus F, Robays J, Miaka C, Kande V, Büscher P, Dujardin B, Boelaert M. Cost-effectiveness of algorithms for confirmation test of human African trypanosomiasis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Oct; 13(10):1484-90. PMID: 18257991.
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    175. Diro E, Techane Y, Tefera T, Assefa Y, Kebede T, Genetu A, Kebede Y, Tesfaye A, Ergicho B, Gebre-Yohannes A, Mengistu G, Engers H, Aseffa A, Desjeux P, Boelaert M, Hailu A. Field evaluation of FD-DAT, rK39 dipstick and KATEX (urine latex agglutination) for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in northwest Ethiopia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Sep; 101(9):908-14. PMID: 17624385.
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    176. Pérez D, Lefèvre P, Sánchez L, Sánchez LM, Boelaert M, Kourí G, Van der Stuyft P. Community participation in Aedes aegypti control: a sociological perspective on five years of research in the health area ''26 de Julio'', Havana, Cuba. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 May; 12(5):664-72. PMID: 17445134.
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    177. Lejon V, Robays J, N'Siesi FX, Mumba D, Hoogstoel A, Bisser S, Reiber H, Boelaert M, Büscher P. Treatment failure related to intrathecal immunoglobulin M (IgM) synthesis, cerebrospinal fluid IgM, and interleukin-10 in patients with hemolymphatic-stage sleeping sickness. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007 Jun; 14(6):732-7. PMID: 17428948.
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    178. Baly A, Toledo ME, Boelaert M, Reyes A, Vanlerberghe V, Ceballos E, Carvajal M, Maso R, La Rosa M, Denis O, Van der Stuyft P. Cost effectiveness of Aedes aegypti control programmes: participatory versus vertical. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Jun; 101(6):578-86. PMID: 17368696.
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    179. Mahendradhata Y, Lambert ML, Boelaert M, Van der Stuyft P. Engaging the private sector for tuberculosis control: much advocacy on a meagre evidence base. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Mar; 12(3):315-6. PMID: 17286621.
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    180. Lutumba P, Makieya E, Shaw A, Meheus F, Boelaert M. Human African trypanosomiasis in a rural community, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Feb; 13(2):248-54. PMID: 17479887.
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    181. Vanlerberghe V, Diap G, Guerin PJ, Meheus F, Gerstl S, Van der Stuyft P, Boelaert M. Drug policy for visceral leishmaniasis: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Feb; 12(2):274-83. PMID: 17300636.
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    182. Robays J, Lefèvre P, Lutumba P, Lubanza S, Kande Betu Ku Mesu V, Van der Stuyft P, Boelaert M. Drug toxicity and cost as barriers to community participation in HAT control in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Feb; 12(2):290-8. PMID: 17300638.
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    183. Sundar S, Singh RK, Bimal SK, Gidwani K, Mishra A, Maurya R, Singh SK, Manandhar KD, Boelaert M, Rai M. Comparative evaluation of parasitology and serological tests in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in India: a phase III diagnostic accuracy study. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Feb; 12(2):284-9. PMID: 17300637.
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    184. Rijal S, Yardley V, Chappuis F, Decuypere S, Khanal B, Singh R, Boelaert M, De Doncker S, Croft S, Dujardin JC. Antimonial treatment of visceral leishmaniasis: are current in vitro susceptibility assays adequate for prognosis of in vivo therapy outcome? Microbes Infect. 2007 Apr; 9(4):529-35. PMID: 17350306.
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    185. Jacquet D, Boelaert M, Seaman J, Rijal S, Sundar S, Menten J, Magnus E. Comparative evaluation of freeze-dried and liquid antigens in the direct agglutination test for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (ITMA-DAT/VL). Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Dec; 11(12):1777-84. PMID: 17176341.
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    186. Schenkel K, Rijal S, Koirala S, Koirala S, Vanlerberghe V, Van der Stuyft P, Gramiccia M, Boelaert M. Visceral leishmaniasis in southeastern Nepal: a cross-sectional survey on Leishmania donovani infection and its risk factors. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Dec; 11(12):1792-9. PMID: 17176343.
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    187. Meheus F, Boelaert M, Baltussen R, Sundar S. Costs of patient management of visceral leishmaniasis in Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Nov; 11(11):1715-24. PMID: 17054752.
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    188. Bermúdez H, Rojas E, Garcia L, Desjeux P, Dujardin JC, Boelaert M, Chappuis F. Generic sodium stibogluconate is as safe and effective as branded meglumine antimoniate, for the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Isiboro Secure Park, Bolivia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006 Oct; 100(7):591-600. PMID: 16989685.
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    189. Bern C, Adler-Moore J, Berenguer J, Boelaert M, den Boer M, Davidson RN, Figueras C, Gradoni L, Kafetzis DA, Ritmeijer K, Rosenthal E, Royce C, Russo R, Sundar S, Alvar J. Liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Oct 01; 43(7):917-24. PMID: 16941377.
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    190. Chappuis F, Rijal S, Soto A, Menten J, Boelaert M. A meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of the direct agglutination test and rK39 dipstick for visceral leishmaniasis. BMJ. 2006 Oct 07; 333(7571):723. PMID: 16882683.
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    191. Toledo ME, Vanlerberghe V, Baly A, Ceballos E, Valdes L, Searret M, Boelaert M, van der Stuyft P. Towards active community participation in dengue vector control: results from action research in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Jan; 101(1):56-63. PMID: 16824565.
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    192. Lejon V, Jamonneau V, Solano P, Atchade P, Mumba D, Nkoy N, Bébronne N, Kibonja T, Balharbi F, Wierckx A, Boelaert M, Büscher P. Detection of trypanosome-specific antibodies in saliva, towards non-invasive serological diagnosis of sleeping sickness. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 May; 11(5):620-7. PMID: 16640614.
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    193. Lutumba P, Robays J, Miaka C, Kande V, Mumba D, Büscher P, Dujardin B, Boelaert M. [Validity, cost and feasibility of the mAECT and CTC confirmation tests after diagnosis of African of sleeping sickness]. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Apr; 11(4):470-8. PMID: 16553930.
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    194. Rijal S, Koirala S, Van der Stuyft P, Boelaert M. The economic burden of visceral leishmaniasis for households in Nepal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Sep; 100(9):838-41. PMID: 16406035.
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    195. Toledo-Romani ME, Baly-Gil A, Ceballos-Ursula E, Boelaert M, Van der Stuyft P. [Community participation in Dengue prevention: an approach from the perspective of different social actors]. Salud Publica Mex. 2006 Jan-Feb; 48(1):39-44. PMID: 16555533.
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    196. Chappuis F, Rijal S, Jha UK, Desjeux P, Karki BM, Koirala S, Loutan L, Boelaert M. Field validity, reproducibility and feasibility of diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis in rural Nepal. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Jan; 11(1):31-40. PMID: 16398753.
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    197. Chappuis F, Mueller Y, Nguimfack A, Rwakimari JB, Couffignal S, Boelaert M, Cavailler P, Loutan L, Piola P. Diagnostic accuracy of two rK39 antigen-based dipsticks and the formol gel test for rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in northeastern Uganda. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Dec; 43(12):5973-7. PMID: 16333084.
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    198. De Deken R, Sumbu J, Mpiana S, Mansinsa P, Wat'senga F, Lutumba P, Boelaert M, Van den Bossche P. Trypanosomiasis in Kinshasa: distribution of the vector, Glossina fuscipes quanzensis, and risk of transmission in the peri-urban area. Med Vet Entomol. 2005 Dec; 19(4):353-9. PMID: 16336299.
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    199. Lutumba P, Robays J, Miaka mia Bilenge C, Mesu VK, Molisho D, Declercq J, Van der Veken W, Meheus F, Jannin J, Boelaert M. Trypanosomiasis control, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1993-2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Sep; 11(9):1382-8. PMID: 16229766.
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    200. Baiden F, Remes P, Baiden R, Williams J, Hodgson A, Boelaert M, Buve A. Voluntary counseling and HIV testing for pregnant women in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana: is couple counseling the way forward? AIDS Care. 2005 Jul; 17(5):648-57. PMID: 16036251.
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    201. Pirard M, Iihoshi N, Boelaert M, Basanta P, López F, Van der Stuyft P. The validity of serologic tests for Trypanosoma cruzi and the effectiveness of transfusional screening strategies in a hyperendemic region. Transfusion. 2005 Apr; 45(4):554-61. PMID: 15819677.
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    202. Lutumba P, Robays J, Miaka C, Kande V, Simarro PP, Shaw AP, Dujardin B, Boelaert M. [The efficiency of different detection strategies of human African trypanosomiasis by T. b. gambiense]. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Apr; 10(4):347-56. PMID: 15807799.
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    203. De Doncker S, Hutse V, Abdellati S, Rijal S, Singh Karki BM, Decuypere S, Jacquet D, Le Ray D, Boelaert M, Koirala S, Dujardin JC. A new PCR-ELISA for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in blood of HIV-negative subjects. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Jan; 99(1):25-31. PMID: 15550258.
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    204. D'Alessandro U, Talisuna A, Boelaert M. Editorial: Should artemisinin-based combination treatment be used in the home-based management of malaria? Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Jan; 10(1):1-2. PMID: 15655007.
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    205. Sanchez L, Perez D, Pérez T, Sosa T, Cruz G, Kouri G, Boelaert M, Van der Stuyft P. Intersectoral coordination in Aedes aegypti control. A pilot project in Havana City, Cuba. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Jan; 10(1):82-91. PMID: 15655017.
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    206. el-Safi SH, Hamid N, Omer A, Abdel-Haleem A, Hammad A, Kareem HG, Boelaert M. Infection rates with Leishmania donovani and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a village in eastern Sudan. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Dec; 9(12):1305-11. PMID: 15598262.
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    207. Robays J, Ebeja Kadima A, Lutumba P, Miaka mia Bilenge C, Kande Betu Ku Mesu V, De Deken R, Makabuza J, Deguerry M, Van der Stuyft P, Boelaert M. Human African trypanosomiasis amongst urban residents in Kinshasa: a case-control study. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Aug; 9(8):869-75. PMID: 15303991.
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    208. Coetzee D, Hilderbrand K, Goemaere E, Matthys F, Boelaert M. Integrating tuberculosis and HIV care in the primary care setting in South Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Jun; 9(6):A11-5. PMID: 15189469.
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    209. Rijal S, Boelaert M, Regmi S, Karki BM, Jacquet D, Singh R, Chance ML, Chappuis F, Hommel M, Desjeux P, Van der Stuyft P, Le Ray D, Koirala S. Evaluation of a urinary antigen-based latex agglutination test in the diagnosis of kala-azar in eastern Nepal. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Jun; 9(6):724-9. PMID: 15189464.
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    210. Robays J, Bilengue MM, Van der Stuyft P, Boelaert M. The effectiveness of active population screening and treatment for sleeping sickness control in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Trop Med Int Health. 2004 May; 9(5):542-50. PMID: 15117297.
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    211. Sánchez L, Pérez D, Cruz G, Silva LC, Boelaert M, Van der Stuyft P. [Community participation in the control of Aedes aegypti: opinions of the population in one section of Havana, Cuba]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2004 Jan; 15(1):19-25. PMID: 14987454.
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    212. Boelaert M, Rijal S, Regmi S, Singh R, Karki B, Jacquet D, Chappuis F, Campino L, Desjeux P, Le Ray D, Koirala S, Van der Stuyft P. A comparative study of the effectiveness of diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Jan; 70(1):72-7. PMID: 14971701.
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    213. Lejon V, Boelaert M, Jannin J, Moore A, Büscher P. The challenge of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness diagnosis outside Africa. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003 Dec; 3(12):804-8. PMID: 14652206.
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    214. Marlet MV, Wuillaume F, Jacquet D, Quispe KW, Dujardin JC, Boelaert M. A neglected disease of humans: a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Bakool, Somalia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Nov-Dec; 97(6):667-71. PMID: 16117959.
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    215. Mahendradhata Y, Lambert ML, Van Deun A, Matthys F, Boelaert M, van der Stuyft P. Strong general health care systems: a prerequisite to reach global tuberculosis control targets. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2003 Oct-Dec; 18 Suppl 1:S53-65. PMID: 14661941.
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    216. Ebeja AK, Lutumba P, Molisho D, Kegels G, Miaka mia Bilenge C, Boelaert M. [Sleeping sickness in the region of the town of Kinshasa: a retrospective analysis during the surveillance period 1996-2000]. Trop Med Int Health. 2003 Oct; 8(10):949-55. PMID: 14516307.
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    217. Rijal S, Chappuis F, Singh R, Boelaert M, Loutan L, Koirala S. Sodium stibogluconate cardiotoxicity and safety of generics. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Sep-Oct; 97(5):597-8. PMID: 15307436.
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    218. El-Safi SH, Abdel-Haleem A, Hammad A, El-Basha I, Omer A, Kareem HG, Boelaert M, Chance M, Hommel M. Field evaluation of latex agglutination test for detecting urinary antigens in visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan. East Mediterr Health J. 2003 Jul; 9(4):844-55. PMID: 15748081.
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    219. Lambert ML, Hasker E, Van Deun A, Roberfroid D, Boelaert M, Van der Stuyft P. Recurrence in tuberculosis: relapse or reinfection? Lancet Infect Dis. 2003 May; 3(5):282-7. PMID: 12726976.
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    220. Soleto L, Pirard M, Boelaert M, Peredo R, Vargas R, Gianella A, Van der Stuyft P. Incidence of surgical-site infections and the validity of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System risk index in a general surgical ward in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003 Jan; 24(1):26-30. PMID: 12558232.
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    221. Boelaert M, Van Damme W, Meessen B, Van der Stuyft P. Editorial: The AIDS crisis, cost-effectiveness and academic activism. Trop Med Int Health. 2002 Dec; 7(12):1001-2. PMID: 12460389.
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    222. Boelaert M, Le Ray D, Van Der Stuyft P. How better drugs could change kala-azar control. Lessons from a cost-effectiveness analysis. Trop Med Int Health. 2002 Nov; 7(11):955-9. PMID: 12390602.
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    223. Guerin PJ, Olliaro P, Sundar S, Boelaert M, Croft SL, Desjeux P, Wasunna MK, Bryceson AD. Visceral leishmaniasis: current status of control, diagnosis, and treatment, and a proposed research and development agenda. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002 Aug; 2(8):494-501. PMID: 12150849.
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    224. Van Damme WI, Van Lerberghe WI, Boelaert M. Primary health care vs. emergency medical assistance: a conceptual framework. Health Policy Plan. 2002 Mar; 17(1):49-60. PMID: 11861586.
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    225. Boelaert M, Matthys F, Henkens M, D'Alessandro U. European Union's research policy: a moving target? Trop Med Int Health. 2001 Nov; 6(11):843-4. PMID: 11703836.
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    226. D'Alessandro U, Boelaert M. The 5th Amendment of the Declaration of Helsinki: implications for medical research in developing countries. Trop Med Int Health. 2001 Apr; 6(4):245-7. PMID: 11348513.
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    227. Boussery G, Boelaert M, van Peteghem J, Ejikon P, Henckaerts K. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) outbreak in Somali refugees and Kenyan shepherds, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001; 7(3 Suppl):603-4. PMID: 11485683.
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    228. Boelaert M, Criel B, Leeuwenburg J, Van Damme W, Le Ray D, Van der Stuyft P. Visceral leishmaniasis control: a public health perspective. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Sep-Oct; 94(5):465-71. PMID: 11132368.
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    229. McDamien D, Boelaert M, Van Damme W, Van der Stuyft P. Meningococcal immunisation in Ghana. Lancet. 2000 Jun 24; 355(9222):2252; author reply 2252-3. PMID: 10881918.
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    230. Goetghebeur E, Liinev J, Boelaert M, Van der Stuyft P. Diagnostic test analyses in search of their gold standard: latent class analyses with random effects. Stat Methods Med Res. 2000 Jun; 9(3):231-48. PMID: 11084706.
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    231. Borchert M, Boelaert M, Sleurs H, Muyembe-Tamfum JJ, Pirard P, Colebunders R, Van der Stuyft P, van der Groen G. Viewpoint: filovirus haemorrhagic fever outbreaks: much ado about nothing? Trop Med Int Health. 2000 May; 5(5):318-24. PMID: 10886793.
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    232. Unger JP, Macq J, Bredo F, Boelaert M. Through Mintzberg's glasses: a fresh look at the organization of ministries of health. Bull World Health Organ. 2000; 78(8):1005-14. PMID: 10994284.
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    233. Boelaert M, Aoun K, Liinev J, Goetghebeur E, Van der Stuyft P. The potential of latent class analysis in diagnostic test validation for canine Leishmania infantum infection. Epidemiol Infect. 1999 Dec; 123(3):499-506. PMID: 10694163.
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    234. Boelaert M, Dujardin JC. Diagnostic PCR with Leishmania donovani specificity. Trop Med Int Health. 1999 Nov; 4(11):789. PMID: 10588774.
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    235. Van der Stuyft P, Gianella A, Pirard M, Cespedes J, Lora J, Peredo C, Pelegrino JL, Vorndam V, Boelaert M. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Lancet. 1999 May 08; 353(9164):1558-62. PMID: 10334253.
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    236. Boelaert M, el Safi S, Goetghebeur E, Gomes-Pereira S, Le Ray D, Van der Stuyft P. Latent class analysis permits unbiased estimates of the validity of DAT for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Trop Med Int Health. 1999 May; 4(5):395-401. PMID: 10402977.
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    237. Boelaert M, El Safi S, Jacquet D, de Muynck A, van der Stuyft P, Le Ray D. Operational validation of the direct agglutination test for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Jan; 60(1):129-34. PMID: 9988336.
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    238. Boelaert M, El Safi S, Mousa H, Githure J, Mbati P, Gurubacharya Vl, Shrestha J, Jacquet D, De Muynck A, Le Ray D, Van der Stuyft P. Multi-centre evaluation of repeatability and reproducibility of the direct agglutination test for visceral leishmaniasis. Trop Med Int Health. 1999 Jan; 4(1):31-7. PMID: 10203171.
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    239. Boelaert M, Lynen L, Desjeux P, Van der Stuyft P. Cost-effectiveness of competing diagnostic-therapeutic strategies for visceral leishmaniasis. Bull World Health Organ. 1999; 77(8):667-74. PMID: 10516788.
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    240. Gianella A, Pirard M, Holzman A, Boelaert M, Fernández-Ortiz F, Peredo C, Pelegrino JL, Van der Stuyft P. [Epidemic outbreak of dengue virus 2/Jamaica genotype in Bolivia]. Salud Publica Mex. 1998 Nov-Dec; 40(6):469-73. PMID: 9927881.
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    241. Van der Stuyft P, Gianella A, Pirard M, Holzman A, Peredo C, Boelaert M, Vorndam V. Short communication: dengue serotype 2 subtype III ('Jamaica') epidemic in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Trop Med Int Health. 1998 Nov; 3(11):857-8. PMID: 9855395.
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    242. Van der Stuyft P, Boelaert M, Temmerman M. Zidovudine to prevent mother-to-infant HIV transmission in developing countries: any questions? Trop Med Int Health. 1998 Sep; 3(9):689-90. PMID: 9754662.
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    243. Van Damme W, De Brouwere V, Boelaert M, Van Lerberghe W. Effects of a refugee-assistance programme on host population in Guinea as measured by obstetric interventions. Lancet. 1998 May 30; 351(9116):1609-13. PMID: 9620714.
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    244. Hilderbrand K, Boelaert M, Van Damme W, Van der Stuyft P. Food rations for refugees. Lancet. 1998 Apr 18; 351(9110):1213-4. PMID: 9643730.
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    245. Boelaert M, Arbyn M, Van der Stuyft P. Geographical information systems (GIS), gimmick or tool for health district management? Trop Med Int Health. 1998 Mar; 3(3):163-5. PMID: 9593353.
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    246. Boelaert M, Englebert M, Hanquet G, van Damme W, van der Stuyft P. Refugee relief rations. Lancet. 1997 Jun 14; 349(9067):1775. PMID: 9193408.
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    247. Haelterman E, Boelaert M, Suetens C, Blok L, Henkens M, Toole MJ. Impact of a mass vaccination campaign against a meningitis epidemic in a refugee camp. Trop Med Int Health. 1996 Jun; 1(3):385-92. PMID: 8673844.
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    248. Moreels R, Pont M, Ean S, Vitharit M, Vuthy C, Roy S, Boelaert M. Wartime colon injuries: primary repair or colostomy? J R Soc Med. 1994 May; 87(5):265-7. PMID: 8207721.
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