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Dr Stephen Andrew Ward

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. O'Neill PM, Ward SA. A Quinoline Carboxamide Antimalarial Drug Candidate Uniquely Targets Plasmodia at Three Stages of the Parasite Life Cycle. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2015 Nov 09; 54(46):13504-6. PMID: 26426264.
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    2. McConville M, Fernández J, Angulo-Barturen Í, Bahamontes-Rosa N, Ballell-Pages L, Castañeda P, de Cózar C, Crespo B, Guijarro L, Jiménez-Díaz MB, Martínez-Martínez MS, de Mercado J, Santos-Villarejo Á, Sanz LM, Frigerio M, Washbourn G, Ward SA, Nixon GL, Biagini GA, Berry NG, Blackman MJ, Calderón F, O'Neill PM. Carbamoyl Triazoles, Known Serine Protease Inhibitors, Are a Potent New Class of Antimalarials. J Med Chem. 2015 Aug 27; 58(16):6448-55. PMID: 26222445.
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    3. Capper MJ, O'Neill PM, Fisher N, Strange RW, Moss D, Ward SA, Berry NG, Lawrenson AS, Hasnain SS, Biagini GA, Antonyuk SV. Antimalarial 4(1H)-pyridones bind to the Qi site of cytochrome bc1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 20; 112(3):755-60. PMID: 25564664; PMCID: PMC4311836.
    4. Clare RH, Cook DA, Johnston KL, Ford L, Ward SA, Taylor MJ. Development and validation of a high-throughput anti-Wolbachia whole-cell screen: a route to macrofilaricidal drugs against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. J Biomol Screen. 2015 Jan; 20(1):64-9. PMID: 25278497.
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    5. Valea I, Tinto H, Traore-Coulibaly M, Toe LC, Lindegardh N, Tarning J, Van Geertruyden JP, D'Alessandro U, Davies GR, Ward SA. Pharmacokinetics of co-formulated mefloquine and artesunate in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection in Burkina Faso. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Sep; 69(9):2499-507. PMID: 24891429; PMCID: PMC4130382.
    6. Salcedo-Sora JE, Caamano-Gutierrez E, Ward SA, Biagini GA. The proliferating cell hypothesis: a metabolic framework for Plasmodium growth and development. Trends Parasitol. 2014 Apr; 30(4):170-5. PMID: 24636355; PMCID: PMC3989997.
    7. Hall AJ, Chappell MJ, Aston JA, Ward SA. Reprint of "Pharmacokinetic modelling of the anti-malarial drug artesunate and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin". Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2014 May; 114(3):e14-28. PMID: 24457047.
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    8. Stocks PA, Barton V, Antoine T, Biagini GA, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Novel inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum electron transport chain. Parasitology. 2014 Jan; 141(1):50-65. PMID: 24401337.
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    9. Antoine T, Fisher N, Amewu R, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Biagini GA. Rapid kill of malaria parasites by artemisinin and semi-synthetic endoperoxides involves ROS-dependent depolarization of the membrane potential. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Apr; 69(4):1005-16. PMID: 24335485; PMCID: PMC3956377.
    10. Vial H, Taramelli D, Boulton IC, Ward SA, Doerig C, Chibale K. CRIMALDDI: platform technologies and novel anti-malarial drug targets. Malar J. 2013 Nov 05; 12:396. PMID: 24498961; PMCID: PMC3827883.
    11. Amewu RK, Chadwick J, Hussain A, Panda S, Rinki R, Janneh O, Ward SA, Miguel C, Burrell-Saward H, Vivas L, O'Neill PM. Synthesis and evaluation of the antimalarial, anticancer, and caspase 3 activities of tetraoxane dimers. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013 Dec 01; 21(23):7392-7. PMID: 24148834.
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    12. Nixon GL, Pidathala C, Shone AE, Antoine T, Fisher N, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Biagini GA. Targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain of Plasmodium falciparum: new strategies towards the development of improved antimalarials for the elimination era. Future Med Chem. 2013 Sep; 5(13):1573-91. PMID: 24024949.
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    13. Gitau EN, Kokwaro GO, Karanja H, Newton CR, Ward SA. Plasma and cerebrospinal proteomes from children with cerebral malaria differ from those of children with other encephalopathies. J Infect Dis. 2013 Nov 01; 208(9):1494-503. PMID: 23888081; PMCID: PMC3789566.
    14. Taylor MJ, Hoerauf A, Townson S, Slatko BE, Ward SA. Anti-Wolbachia drug discovery and development: safe macrofilaricides for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Parasitology. 2014 Jan; 141(1):119-27. PMID: 23866958; PMCID: PMC3884836.
    15. Hall AJ, Chappell MJ, Aston JA, Ward SA. Pharmacokinetic modelling of the anti-malarial drug artesunate and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2013 Oct; 112(1):1-15. PMID: 23871681.
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    16. Oliveira R, Newton AS, Guedes RC, Miranda D, Amewu RK, Srivastava A, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Lopes F, Moreira R. An endoperoxide-based hybrid approach to deliver falcipain inhibitors inside malaria parasites. ChemMedChem. 2013 Sep; 8(9):1528-36. PMID: 23853126.
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    17. La Pensée L, Sabbani S, Sharma R, Bhamra I, Shore E, Chadwick AE, Berry NG, Firman J, Araujo NC, Cabral L, Cristiano ML, Bateman C, Janneh O, Gavrila A, Wu YH, Hussain A, Ward SA, Stocks PA, Cosstick R, O'Neill PM. Artemisinin-polypyrrole conjugates: synthesis, DNA binding studies and preliminary antiproliferative evaluation. ChemMedChem. 2013 May; 8(5):709-18. PMID: 23495190.
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    18. Nixon GL, Moss DM, Shone AE, Lalloo DG, Fisher N, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Biagini GA. Antimalarial pharmacology and therapeutics of atovaquone. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 May; 68(5):977-85. PMID: 23292347; PMCID: PMC4344550.
    19. Patzewitz EM, Salcedo-Sora JE, Wong EH, Sethia S, Stocks PA, Maughan SC, Murray JA, Krishna S, Bray PG, Ward SA, Müller S. Glutathione transport: a new role for PfCRT in chloroquine resistance. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013 Sep 01; 19(7):683-95. PMID: 23256874; PMCID: PMC3739961.
    20. Warman AJ, Rito TS, Fisher NE, Moss DM, Berry NG, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Biagini GA. Antitubercular pharmacodynamics of phenothiazines. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Apr; 68(4):869-80. PMID: 23228936; PMCID: PMC3594496.
    21. Copple IM, Mercer AE, Firman J, Donegan G, Herpers B, Wong MH, Chadwick J, Bringela AD, Cristiano ML, van de Water B, Ward SA, O'Neill PM, Park BK. Examination of the cytotoxic and embryotoxic potential and underlying mechanisms of next-generation synthetic trioxolane and tetraoxane antimalarials. Mol Med. 2012 Sep 25; 18:1045-55. PMID: 22669474; PMCID: PMC3474437.
    22. Srivastava A, Waterhouse D, Ardrey A, Ward SA. Quantification of rifampicin in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by a highly sensitive and rapid liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012 Nov; 70:523-8. PMID: 22709606; PMCID: PMC3458211.
    23. Biagini GA, Fisher N, Shone AE, Mubaraki MA, Srivastava A, Hill A, Antoine T, Warman AJ, Davies J, Pidathala C, Amewu RK, Leung SC, Sharma R, Gibbons P, Hong DW, Pacorel B, Lawrenson AS, Charoensutthivarakul S, Taylor L, Berger O, Mbekeani A, Stocks PA, Nixon GL, Chadwick J, Hemingway J, Delves MJ, Sinden RE, Zeeman AM, Kocken CH, Berry NG, O'Neill PM, Ward SA. Generation of quinolone antimalarials targeting the Plasmodium falciparum mitochondrial respiratory chain for the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 22; 109(21):8298-303. PMID: 22566611; PMCID: PMC3361392.
    24. Vallières C, Fisher N, Antoine T, Al-Helal M, Stocks P, Berry NG, Lawrenson AS, Ward SA, O'Neill PM, Biagini GA, Meunier B. HDQ, a potent inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum proliferation, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Jul; 56(7):3739-47. PMID: 22547613; PMCID: PMC3393389.
    25. Sharma R, Lawrenson AS, Fisher NE, Warman AJ, Shone AE, Hill A, Mbekeani A, Pidathala C, Amewu RK, Leung S, Gibbons P, Hong DW, Stocks P, Nixon GL, Chadwick J, Shearer J, Gowers I, Cronk D, Parel SP, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Biagini GA, Berry NG. Identification of novel antimalarial chemotypes via chemoinformatic compound selection methods for a high-throughput screening program against the novel malarial target, PfNDH2: increasing hit rate via virtual screening methods. J Med Chem. 2012 Apr 12; 55(7):3144-54. PMID: 22380711; PMCID: PMC3324984.
    26. Pidathala C, Amewu R, Pacorel B, Nixon GL, Gibbons P, Hong WD, Leung SC, Berry NG, Sharma R, Stocks PA, Srivastava A, Shone AE, Charoensutthivarakul S, Taylor L, Berger O, Mbekeani A, Hill A, Fisher NE, Warman AJ, Biagini GA, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Identification, design and biological evaluation of bisaryl quinolones targeting Plasmodium falciparum type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2). J Med Chem. 2012 Mar 08; 55(5):1831-43. PMID: 22364416; PMCID: PMC3297363.
    27. Leung SC, Gibbons P, Amewu R, Nixon GL, Pidathala C, Hong WD, Pacorel B, Berry NG, Sharma R, Stocks PA, Srivastava A, Shone AE, Charoensutthivarakul S, Taylor L, Berger O, Mbekeani A, Hill A, Fisher NE, Warman AJ, Biagini GA, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Identification, design and biological evaluation of heterocyclic quinolones targeting Plasmodium falciparum type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2). J Med Chem. 2012 Mar 08; 55(5):1844-57. PMID: 22364417; PMCID: PMC3351724.
    28. Requena-Méndez A, Davies G, Ardrey A, Jave O, López-Romero SL, Ward SA, Moore DA. Pharmacokinetics of rifampin in Peruvian tuberculosis patients with and without comorbid diabetes or HIV. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 May; 56(5):2357-63. PMID: 22330931; PMCID: PMC3346648.
    29. Fisher N, Abd Majid R, Antoine T, Al-Helal M, Warman AJ, Johnson DJ, Lawrenson AS, Ranson H, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Biagini GA. Cytochrome b mutation Y268S conferring atovaquone resistance phenotype in malaria parasite results in reduced parasite bc1 catalytic turnover and protein expression. J Biol Chem. 2012 Mar 23; 287(13):9731-41. PMID: 22282497; PMCID: PMC3322985.
    30. Salcedo-Sora JE, Ochong E, Beveridge S, Johnson D, Nzila A, Biagini GA, Stocks PA, O'Neill PM, Krishna S, Bray PG, Ward SA. The molecular basis of folate salvage in Plasmodium falciparum: characterization of two folate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2011 Dec 30; 286(52):44659-68. PMID: 21998306; PMCID: PMC3247980.
    31. Bousejra-El Garah F, Wong MH, Amewu RK, Muangnoicharoen S, Maggs JL, Stigliani JL, Park BK, Chadwick J, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Comparison of the reactivity of antimalarial 1,2,4,5-tetraoxanes with 1,2,4-trioxolanes in the presence of ferrous iron salts, heme, and ferrous iron salts/phosphatidylcholine. J Med Chem. 2011 Oct 13; 54(19):6443-55. PMID: 21888440.
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    32. Berger O, Kaniti A, van Ba CT, Vial H, Ward SA, Biagini GA, Bray PG, O'Neill PM. Synthesis and antimalarial activities of a diverse set of triazole-containing furamidine analogues. ChemMedChem. 2011 Nov 04; 6(11):2094-108. PMID: 21905228.
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    33. Gitau EN, Kokwaro GO, Newton CR, Ward SA. Global proteomic analysis of plasma from mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA using two dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Malar J. 2011 Jul 26; 10:205. PMID: 21791037; PMCID: PMC3199904.
    34. Chadwick J, Amewu RK, Marti F, Garah FB, Sharma R, Berry NG, Stocks PA, Burrell-Saward H, Wittlin S, Rottmann M, Brun R, Taramelli D, Parapini S, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Antimalarial mannoxanes: hybrid antimalarial drugs with outstanding oral activity profiles and a potential dual mechanism of action. ChemMedChem. 2011 Aug 01; 6(8):1357-61. PMID: 21692184.
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    35. Chaijaroenkul W, Ward SA, Mungthin M, Johnson D, Owen A, Bray PG, Na-Bangchang K. Sequence and gene expression of chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) in the association of in vitro drugs resistance of Plasmodium falciparum. Malar J. 2011 Feb 15; 10:42. PMID: 21320353; PMCID: PMC3055224.
    36. Bell DJ, Nyirongo SK, Mukaka M, Molyneux ME, Winstanley PA, Ward SA. Population pharmacokinetics of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine in Malawian children with malaria. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Feb; 89(2):268-75. PMID: 21191379.
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    37. Mungthin M, Khositnithikul R, Sitthichot N, Suwandittakul N, Wattanaveeradej V, Ward SA, Na-Bangchang K. Association between the pfmdr1 gene and in vitro artemether and lumefantrine sensitivity in Thai isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Nov; 83(5):1005-9. PMID: 21036827; PMCID: PMC2963959.
    38. Gibbons P, Verissimo E, Araujo NC, Barton V, Nixon GL, Amewu RK, Chadwick J, Stocks PA, Biagini GA, Srivastava A, Rosenthal PJ, Gut J, Guedes RC, Moreira R, Sharma R, Berry N, Cristiano ML, Shone AE, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Endoperoxide carbonyl falcipain 2/3 inhibitor hybrids: toward combination chemotherapy of malaria through a single chemical entity. J Med Chem. 2010 Nov 25; 53(22):8202-6. PMID: 20979352.
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    39. Goonetilleke UR, Scarborough M, Ward SA, Gordon SB. Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in pneumococcal meningitis reveals potential biomarkers associated with survival. J Infect Dis. 2010 Aug 15; 202(4):542-50. PMID: 20608875; PMCID: PMC5019338.
    40. Finaurini S, Ronzoni L, Colancecco A, Cattaneo A, Cappellini MD, Ward SA, Taramelli D. Selective toxicity of dihydroartemisinin on human CD34+ erythroid cell differentiation. Toxicology. 2010 Oct 09; 276(2):128-34. PMID: 20688127.
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    41. O'Neill PM, Amewu RK, Nixon GL, Bousejra ElGarah F, Mungthin M, Chadwick J, Shone AE, Vivas L, Lander H, Barton V, Muangnoicharoen S, Bray PG, Davies J, Park BK, Wittlin S, Brun R, Preschel M, Zhang K, Ward SA. Identification of a 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane antimalarial drug-development candidate (RKA 182) with superior properties to the semisynthetic artemisinins. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2010 Aug 02; 49(33):5693-7. PMID: 20629058.
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    42. Barton V, Fisher N, Biagini GA, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Inhibiting Plasmodium cytochrome bc1: a complex issue. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2010 Aug; 14(4):440-6. PMID: 20570550.
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    43. Boulton IC, Nwaka S, Bathurst I, Lanzer M, Taramelli D, Vial H, Doerig C, Chibale K, Ward SA. CRIMALDDI: a co-ordinated, rational, and integrated effort to set logical priorities in anti-malarial drug discovery initiatives. Malar J. 2010 Jul 13; 9:202. PMID: 20626844; PMCID: PMC2914065.
    44. de Souza JB, Okomo U, Alexander ND, Aziz N, Owens BM, Kaur H, Jasseh M, Muangnoicharoen S, Sumariwalla PF, Warhurst DC, Ward SA, Conway DJ, Ulloa L, Tracey KJ, Foxwell BM, Kaye PM, Walther M. Oral activated charcoal prevents experimental cerebral malaria in mice and in a randomized controlled clinical trial in man did not interfere with the pharmacokinetics of parenteral artesunate. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 15; 5(4):e9867. PMID: 20419161; PMCID: PMC2855344.
    45. O'Neill PM, Barton VE, Ward SA. The molecular mechanism of action of artemisinin--the debate continues. Molecules. 2010 Mar 12; 15(3):1705-21. PMID: 20336009.
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    46. Amewu R, Gibbons P, Mukhtar A, Stachulski AV, Ward SA, Hall C, Rimmer K, Davies J, Vivas L, Bacsa J, Mercer AE, Nixon G, Stocks PA, O'Neill PM. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo antimalarial assessment of sulfide, sulfone and vinyl amide-substituted 1,2,4-trioxanes prepared via thiol-olefin co-oxygenation (TOCO) of allylic alcohols. Org Biomol Chem. 2010 May 07; 8(9):2068-77. PMID: 20401383.
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    47. Chadwick J, Jones M, Mercer AE, Stocks PA, Ward SA, Park BK, O'Neill PM. Design, synthesis and antimalarial/anticancer evaluation of spermidine linked artemisinin conjugates designed to exploit polyamine transporters in Plasmodium falciparum and HL-60 cancer cell lines. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Apr 01; 18(7):2586-97. PMID: 20227283.
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    48. Pacorel B, Leung SC, Stachulski AV, Davies J, Vivas L, Lander H, Ward SA, Kaiser M, Brun R, O'Neill PM. Modular synthesis and in vitro and in vivo antimalarial assessment of C-10 pyrrole mannich base derivatives of artemisinin. J Med Chem. 2010 Jan 28; 53(2):633-40. PMID: 19957999.
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    49. Tiono AB, Dicko A, Ndububa DA, Agbenyega T, Pitmang S, Awobusuyi J, Pamba A, Duparc S, Goh LE, Harrell E, Carter N, Ward SA, Greenwood B, Winstanley PA. Chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate versus chlorproguanil-dapsone: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial in African children, adolescents, and adults with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Dec; 81(6):969-78. PMID: 19996424.
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    50. Premji Z, Umeh RE, Owusu-Agyei S, Esamai F, Ezedinachi EU, Oguche S, Borrmann S, Sowunmi A, Duparc S, Kirby PL, Pamba A, Kellam L, Guiguemdé R, Greenwood B, Ward SA, Winstanley PA. Chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate versus artemether-lumefantrine: a randomized, double-blind phase III trial in African children and adolescents with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. PLoS One. 2009 Aug 19; 4(8):e6682. PMID: 19690618; PMCID: PMC2724683.
    51. Miller AK, Bandyopadhyay N, Wootton DG, Duparc S, Kirby PL, Winstanley PA, Ward SA. Pharmacokinetics of chlorproguanil, dapsone, artesunate and their major metabolites in patients during treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Oct; 65(10):977-87. PMID: 19517101.
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    52. Goonetilleke UR, Ward SA, Gordon SB. Could proteomic research deliver the next generation of treatments for pneumococcal meningitis? Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2009; 2009:214216. PMID: 19503804; PMCID: PMC2688656.
    53. O'Neill PM, Shone AE, Stanford D, Nixon G, Asadollahy E, Park BK, Maggs JL, Roberts P, Stocks PA, Biagini G, Bray PG, Davies J, Berry N, Hall C, Rimmer K, Winstanley PA, Hindley S, Bambal RB, Davis CB, Bates M, Gresham SL, Brigandi RA, Gomez-de-Las-Heras FM, Gargallo DV, Parapini S, Vivas L, Lander H, Taramelli D, Ward SA. Synthesis, antimalarial activity, and preclinical pharmacology of a novel series of 4'-fluoro and 4'-chloro analogues of amodiaquine. Identification of a suitable "back-up" compound for N-tert-butyl isoquine. J Med Chem. 2009 Apr 09; 52(7):1828-44. PMID: 19284751.
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    54. Alker AP, Juliano JJ, Meshnick SR, Owen A, Ochong E, Bell DJ, Johnson DJ, d'Alessandro U, Mulenga M, Muangnoicharoen S, Van Geertruyden JP, Winstanley PA, Bray PG, Ward SA. Plasmodium falciparum and dihydrofolate reductase I164L mutations in Africa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Apr; 53(4):1722; author reply 1722-3. PMID: 19299520; PMCID: PMC2663109.
    55. O'Neill PM, Park BK, Shone AE, Maggs JL, Roberts P, Stocks PA, Biagini GA, Bray PG, Gibbons P, Berry N, Winstanley PA, Mukhtar A, Bonar-Law R, Hindley S, Bambal RB, Davis CB, Bates M, Hart TK, Gresham SL, Lawrence RM, Brigandi RA, Gomez-delas-Heras FM, Gargallo DV, Ward SA. Candidate selection and preclinical evaluation of N-tert-butyl isoquine (GSK369796), an affordable and effective 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial for the 21st century. J Med Chem. 2009 Mar 12; 52(5):1408-15. PMID: 19222165.
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    56. Lian LY, Al-Helal M, Roslaini AM, Fisher N, Bray PG, Ward SA, Biagini GA. Glycerol: an unexpected major metabolite of energy metabolism by the human malaria parasite. Malar J. 2009 Mar 06; 8:38. PMID: 19267910; PMCID: PMC2660357.
    57. Jones M, Mercer AE, Stocks PA, La Pensée LJ, Cosstick R, Park BK, Kennedy ME, Piantanida I, Ward SA, Davies J, Bray PG, Rawe SL, Baird J, Charidza T, Janneh O, O'Neill PM. Antitumour and antimalarial activity of artemisinin-acridine hybrids. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Apr 01; 19(7):2033-7. PMID: 19249201.
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    58. Araújo NC, Barton V, Jones M, Stocks PA, Ward SA, Davies J, Bray PG, Shone AE, Cristiano ML, O'Neill PM. Semi-synthetic and synthetic 1,2,4-trioxaquines and 1,2,4-trioxolaquines: synthesis, preliminary SAR and comparison with acridine endoperoxide conjugates. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Apr 01; 19(7):2038-43. PMID: 19251414.
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    59. Nkhoma S, Nair S, Mukaka M, Molyneux ME, Ward SA, Anderson TJ. Parasites bearing a single copy of the multi-drug resistance gene (pfmdr-1) with wild-type SNPs predominate amongst Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Malawi. Acta Trop. 2009 Jul; 111(1):78-81. PMID: 19426667; PMCID: PMC2746100.
    60. Muangnoicharoen S, Johnson DJ, Looareesuwan S, Krudsood S, Ward SA. Role of known molecular markers of resistance in the antimalarial potency of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Apr; 53(4):1362-6. PMID: 19188388; PMCID: PMC2663099.
    61. Davis CB, Bambal R, Moorthy GS, Hugger E, Xiang H, Park BK, Shone AE, O'Neill PM, Ward SA. Comparative preclinical drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic evaluation of novel 4-aminoquinoline anti-malarials. J Pharm Sci. 2009 Jan; 98(1):362-77. PMID: 18563832.
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    62. Fisher N, Warman AJ, Ward SA, Biagini GA. Chapter 17 Type II NADH: quinone oxidoreductases of Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis kinetic and high-throughput assays. Methods Enzymol. 2009; 456:303-20. PMID: 19348896.
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    63. Fidock DA, Eastman RT, Ward SA, Meshnick SR. Recent highlights in antimalarial drug resistance and chemotherapy research. Trends Parasitol. 2008 Dec; 24(12):537-44. PMID: 18938106; PMCID: PMC2718548.
    64. Sabbani S, Stocks PA, Ellis GL, Davies J, Hedenstrom E, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Piperidine dispiro-1,2,4-trioxane analogues. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Nov 01; 18(21):5804-8. PMID: 18845438.
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    65. Ochong E, Bell DJ, Johnson DJ, D'Alessandro U, Mulenga M, Muangnoicharoen S, Van Geertruyden JP, Winstanley PA, Bray PG, Ward SA, Owen A. Plasmodium falciparum strains harboring dihydrofolate reductase with the I164L mutation are absent in Malawi and Zambia even under antifolate drug pressure. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Nov; 52(11):3883-8. PMID: 18725445; PMCID: PMC2573156.
    66. Muchohi SN, Kokwaro GO, Ogutu BR, Edwards G, Ward SA, Newton CR. Pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of midazolam in children with severe malaria and convulsions. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Oct; 66(4):529-38. PMID: 18662297; PMCID: PMC2561115.
    67. Verissimo E, Berry N, Gibbons P, Cristiano ML, Rosenthal PJ, Gut J, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Design and synthesis of novel 2-pyridone peptidomimetic falcipain 2/3 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Jul 15; 18(14):4210-4. PMID: 18554905.
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    68. Ellis GL, Amewu R, Sabbani S, Stocks PA, Shone A, Stanford D, Gibbons P, Davies J, Vivas L, Charnaud S, Bongard E, Hall C, Rimmer K, Lozanom S, Jesús M, Gargallo D, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Two-step synthesis of achiral dispiro-1,2,4,5-tetraoxanes with outstanding antimalarial activity, low toxicity, and high-stability profiles. J Med Chem. 2008 Apr 10; 51(7):2170-7. PMID: 18341274.
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    69. Wootton DG, Opara H, Biagini GA, Kanjala MK, Duparc S, Kirby PL, Woessner M, Neate C, Nyirenda M, Blencowe H, Dube-Mbeye Q, Kanyok T, Ward S, Molyneux M, Dunyo S, Winstanley PA. Open-label comparative clinical study of chlorproguanil-dapsone fixed dose combination (Lapdap) alone or with three different doses of artesunate for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. PLoS One. 2008 Mar 05; 3(3):e1779. PMID: 18320064; PMCID: PMC2258152.
    70. Biagini GA, Fisher N, Berry N, Stocks PA, Meunier B, Williams DP, Bonar-Law R, Bray PG, Owen A, O'Neill PM, Ward SA. Acridinediones: selective and potent inhibitors of the malaria parasite mitochondrial bc1 complex. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 May; 73(5):1347-55. PMID: 18319379.
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    71. Johnson DJ, Owen A, Plant N, Bray PG, Ward SA. Drug-regulated expression of Plasmodium falciparum P-glycoprotein homologue 1: a putative role for nuclear receptors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Apr; 52(4):1438-45. PMID: 18195056; PMCID: PMC2292565.
    72. Fisher N, Bray PG, Ward SA, Biagini GA. Malaria-parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenases as drug targets: too early to write the obituary. Trends Parasitol. 2008 Jan; 24(1):9-10. PMID: 18024199.
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    73. Hartkoorn RC, Khoo S, Back DJ, Tjia JF, Waitt CJ, Chaponda M, Davies G, Ardrey A, Ashleigh S, Ward SA. A rapid and sensitive HPLC-MS method for the detection of plasma and cellular rifampicin. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007 Sep 15; 857(1):76-82. PMID: 17643357.
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    74. Nkhoma S, Molyneux M, Ward S. In vitro antimalarial susceptibility profile and prcrt/pfmdr-1 genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Jun; 76(6):1107-12. PMID: 17556619.
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    75. Fisher N, Bray PG, Ward SA, Biagini GA. The malaria parasite type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase: an alternative enzyme for an alternative lifestyle. Trends Parasitol. 2007 Jul; 23(7):305-10. PMID: 17499024.
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    76. Nkhoma S, Molyneux M, Ward S. Molecular surveillance for drug-resistant Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria in Malawi. Acta Trop. 2007 May; 102(2):138-42. PMID: 17544355.
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    77. Ward SA, Sevene EJ, Hastings IM, Nosten F, McGready R. Antimalarial drugs and pregnancy: safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacovigilance. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007 Feb; 7(2):136-44. PMID: 17251084.
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    78. Hartkoorn RC, Chandler B, Owen A, Ward SA, Bertel Squire S, Back DJ, Khoo SH. Differential drug susceptibility of intracellular and extracellular tuberculosis, and the impact of P-glycoprotein. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2007 May; 87(3):248-55. PMID: 17258938.
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    79. Stocks PA, Bray PG, Barton VE, Al-Helal M, Jones M, Araujo NC, Gibbons P, Ward SA, Hughes RH, Biagini GA, Davies J, Amewu R, Mercer AE, Ellis G, O'Neill PM. Evidence for a common non-heme chelatable-iron-dependent activation mechanism for semisynthetic and synthetic endoperoxide antimalarial drugs. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2007; 46(33):6278-83. PMID: 17640025.
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    80. Bell DJ, Nyirongo SK, Molyneux ME, Winstanley PA, Ward SA. Practical HPLC methods for the quantitative determination of common antimalarials in Africa. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007 Mar 01; 847(2):231-6. PMID: 17098484.
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    81. Amewu R, Stachulski AV, Ward SA, Berry NG, Bray PG, Davies J, Labat G, Vivas L, O'Neill PM. Design and synthesis of orally active dispiro 1,2,4,5-tetraoxanes; synthetic antimalarials with superior activity to artemisinin. Org Biomol Chem. 2006 Dec 21; 4(24):4431-6. PMID: 17268634.
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    82. Simpson JA, Agbenyega T, Barnes KI, Di Perri G, Folb P, Gomes M, Krishna S, Krudsood S, Looareesuwan S, Mansor S, McIlleron H, Miller R, Molyneux M, Mwenechanya J, Navaratnam V, Nosten F, Olliaro P, Pang L, Ribeiro I, Tembo M, van Vugt M, Ward S, Weerasuriya K, Win K, White NJ. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following intra-rectal dosing of artesunate in malaria patients. PLoS Med. 2006 Nov; 3(11):e444. PMID: 17132053; PMCID: PMC1664603.
    83. Amewu R, Stachulski AV, Berry NG, Ward SA, Davies J, Labat G, Rossignol JF, O'Neill PM. Synthesis of 1,2,4-trioxepanes via application of thiol-olefin co-oxygenation methodology. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Dec 01; 16(23):6124-30. PMID: 16978862.
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    84. Bray PG, Mungthin M, Hastings IM, Biagini GA, Saidu DK, Lakshmanan V, Johnson DJ, Hughes RH, Stocks PA, O'Neill PM, Fidock DA, Warhurst DC, Ward SA. PfCRT and the trans-vacuolar proton electrochemical gradient: regulating the access of chloroquine to ferriprotoporphyrin IX. Mol Microbiol. 2006 Oct; 62(1):238-51. PMID: 16956382; PMCID: PMC2943415.
    85. Biagini GA, Viriyavejakul P, O'neill PM, Bray PG, Ward SA. Functional characterization and target validation of alternative complex I of Plasmodium falciparum mitochondria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 May; 50(5):1841-51. PMID: 16641458; PMCID: PMC1472221.
    86. McGready R, Stepniewska K, Ward SA, Cho T, Gilveray G, Looareesuwan S, White NJ, Nosten F. Pharmacokinetics of dihydroartemisinin following oral artesunate treatment of pregnant women with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 May; 62(5):367-71. PMID: 16552504.
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    87. O'Neill PM, Verissimo E, Ward SA, Davies J, Korshin EE, Araujo N, Pugh MD, Cristiano ML, Stocks PA, Bachi MD. Diels-Alder/thiol-olefin co-oxygenation approach to antimalarials incorporating the 2,3-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane pharmacophore. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Jun 01; 16(11):2991-5. PMID: 16527481.
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    88. O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Berry NG, Jeyadevan JP, Biagini GA, Asadollaly E, Park BK, Bray PG. A medicinal chemistry perspective on 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial drugs. Curr Top Med Chem. 2006; 6(5):479-507. PMID: 16719804.
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    89. Winstanley P, Ward S. Malaria chemotherapy. Adv Parasitol. 2006; 61:47-76. PMID: 16735162.
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    90. Janneh O, Owen A, Chandler B, Hartkoorn RC, Hart CA, Bray PG, Ward SA, Back DJ, Khoo SH. Modulation of the intracellular accumulation of saquinavir in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by inhibitors of MRP1, MRP2, P-gp and BCRP. AIDS. 2005 Dec 02; 19(18):2097-102. PMID: 16284458.
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    91. O'Neill PM, Rawe SL, Borstnik K, Miller A, Ward SA, Bray PG, Davies J, Oh CH, Posner GH. Enantiomeric 1,2,4-trioxanes display equivalent in vitro antimalarial activity versus Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites: implications for the molecular mechanism of action of the artemisinins. Chembiochem. 2005 Nov; 6(11):2048-54. PMID: 16222725.
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    92. Biagini GA, Fidock DA, Bray PG, Ward SA. Mutations conferring drug resistance in malaria parasite drug transporters Pgh1 and PfCRT do not affect steady-state vacuolar Ca2+. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Nov; 49(11):4807-8. PMID: 16251339; PMCID: PMC1280173.
    93. Hastings IM, Ward SA. Coartem (artemether-lumefantrine) in Africa: the beginning of the end? J Infect Dis. 2005 Oct 01; 192(7):1303-4; author reply 1304-5. PMID: 16136476.
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    94. Biagini GA, O'Neill PM, Bray PG, Ward SA. Current drug development portfolio for antimalarial therapies. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005 Oct; 5(5):473-8. PMID: 16084770.
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    95. Chaijaroenkul W, Bangchang KN, Mungthin M, Ward SA. In vitro antimalarial drug susceptibility in Thai border areas from 1998-2003. Malar J. 2005 Aug 02; 4:37. PMID: 16060967; PMCID: PMC1201168.
    96. Biagini GA, Ward SA, Bray PG. Malaria parasite transporters as a drug-delivery strategy. Trends Parasitol. 2005 Jul; 21(7):299-301. PMID: 15923144.
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    97. Owen A, Janneh O, Hartkoorn RC, Chandler B, Bray PG, Martin P, Ward SA, Hart CA, Khoo SH, Back DJ. In vitro synergy and enhanced murine brain penetration of saquinavir coadministered with mefloquine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Sep; 314(3):1202-9. PMID: 15923343.
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    98. Makanga M, Bray PG, Horrocks P, Ward SA. Towards a proteomic definition of CoArtem action in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Proteomics. 2005 May; 5(7):1849-58. PMID: 15832369.
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    99. Bray PG, Martin RE, Tilley L, Ward SA, Kirk K, Fidock DA. Defining the role of PfCRT in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance. Mol Microbiol. 2005 Apr; 56(2):323-33. PMID: 15813727.
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    100. Bray PG, Ward SA, O'Neill PM. Quinolines and artemisinin: chemistry, biology and history. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2005; 295:3-38. PMID: 16265885.
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    101. Clark RL, White TE, A Clode S, Gaunt I, Winstanley P, Ward SA. Developmental toxicity of artesunate and an artesunate combination in the rat and rabbit. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2004 Dec; 71(6):380-94. PMID: 15617018.
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    102. Owen A, Chandler B, Bray PG, Ward SA, Hart CA, Back DJ, Khoo SH. Functional correlation of P-glycoprotein expression and genotype with expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptor CXCR4. J Virol. 2004 Nov; 78(21):12022-9. PMID: 15479841; PMCID: PMC523248.
    103. Johnson DJ, Fidock DA, Mungthin M, Lakshmanan V, Sidhu AB, Bray PG, Ward SA. Evidence for a central role for PfCRT in conferring Plasmodium falciparum resistance to diverse antimalarial agents. Mol Cell. 2004 Sep 24; 15(6):867-77. PMID: 15383277; PMCID: PMC2943419.
    104. O'Neill PM, Mukhtar A, Ward SA, Bickley JF, Davies J, Bachi MD, Stocks PA. Application of thiol-olefin co-oxygenation methodology to a new synthesis of the 1,2,4-trioxane pharmacophore. Org Lett. 2004 Sep 02; 6(18):3035-8. PMID: 15330581.
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    105. O'Neill PM, Stocks PA, Pugh MD, Araujo NC, Korshin EE, Bickley JF, Ward SA, Bray PG, Pasini E, Davies J, Verissimo E, Bachi MD. Design and synthesis of endoperoxide antimalarial prodrug models. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2004 Aug 13; 43(32):4193-7. PMID: 15307085.
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    106. Winstanley P, Ward S, Snow R, Breckenridge A. Therapy of falciparum malaria in sub-saharan Africa: from molecule to policy. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Jul; 17(3):612-37, table of contents. PMID: 15258096; PMCID: PMC452542.
    107. Biagini GA, Pasini EM, Hughes R, De Koning HP, Vial HJ, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Bray PG. Characterization of the choline carrier of Plasmodium falciparum: a route for the selective delivery of novel antimalarial drugs. Blood. 2004 Nov 15; 104(10):3372-7. PMID: 15205262.
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    108. Alloueche A, Bailey W, Barton S, Bwika J, Chimpeni P, Falade CO, Fehintola FA, Horton J, Jaffar S, Kanyok T, Kremsner PG, Kublin JG, Lang T, Missinou MA, Mkandala C, Oduola AM, Premji Z, Robertson L, Sowunmi A, Ward SA, Winstanley PA. Comparison of chlorproguanil-dapsone with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in young African children: double-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 Jun 05; 363(9424):1843-8. PMID: 15183620.
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    109. Heit JA, Phelps MA, Ward SA, Slusser JP, Petterson TM, De Andrade M. Familial segregation of venous thromboembolism. J Thromb Haemost. 2004 May; 2(5):731-6. PMID: 15099278.
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    110. Jeyadevan JP, Bray PG, Chadwick J, Mercer AE, Byrne A, Ward SA, Park BK, Williams DP, Cosstick R, Davies J, Higson AP, Irving E, Posner GH, O'Neill PM. Antimalarial and antitumor evaluation of novel C-10 non-acetal dimers of 10beta-(2-hydroxyethyl)deoxoartemisinin. J Med Chem. 2004 Feb 26; 47(5):1290-8. PMID: 14971909.
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    111. O'Neill PM, Mukhtar A, Stocks PA, Randle LE, Hindley S, Ward SA, Storr RC, Bickley JF, O'Neil IA, Maggs JL, Hughes RH, Winstanley PA, Bray PG, Park BK. Isoquine and related amodiaquine analogues: a new generation of improved 4-aminoquinoline antimalarials. J Med Chem. 2003 Nov 06; 46(23):4933-45. PMID: 14584944.
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    112. Biagini GA, O'Neill PM, Nzila A, Ward SA, Bray PG. Antimalarial chemotherapy: young guns or back to the future? Trends Parasitol. 2003 Nov; 19(11):479-87. PMID: 14580958.
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    113. Eckstein-Ludwig U, Webb RJ, Van Goethem ID, East JM, Lee AG, Kimura M, O'Neill PM, Bray PG, Ward SA, Krishna S. Artemisinins target the SERCA of Plasmodium falciparum. Nature. 2003 Aug 21; 424(6951):957-61. PMID: 12931192.
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    114. Biagini GA, Richier E, Bray PG, Calas M, Vial H, Ward SA. Heme binding contributes to antimalarial activity of bis-quaternary ammoniums. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Aug; 47(8):2584-9. PMID: 12878523; PMCID: PMC166076.
    115. Biagini GA, Bray PG, Spiller DG, White MR, Ward SA. The digestive food vacuole of the malaria parasite is a dynamic intracellular Ca2+ store. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jul 25; 278(30):27910-5. PMID: 12740366.
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    116. Bray PG, Barrett MP, Ward SA, de Koning HP. Pentamidine uptake and resistance in pathogenic protozoa: past, present and future. Trends Parasitol. 2003 May; 19(5):232-9. PMID: 12763430.
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    117. Hempelmann E, Motta C, Hughes R, Ward SA, Bray PG. Plasmodium falciparum: sacrificing membrane to grow crystals? Trends Parasitol. 2003 Jan; 19(1):23-6. PMID: 12488222.
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    118. Saliba KJ, Allen RJ, Zissis S, Bray PG, Ward SA, Kirk K. Acidification of the malaria parasite's digestive vacuole by a H+-ATPase and a H+-pyrophosphatase. J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 21; 278(8):5605-12. PMID: 12427765.
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    119. Stocks PA, Raynes KJ, Bray PG, Park BK, O'Neill PM, Ward SA. Novel short chain chloroquine analogues retain activity against chloroquine resistant K1 Plasmodium falciparum. J Med Chem. 2002 Nov 07; 45(23):4975-83. PMID: 12408708.
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    120. Hastings IM, Bray PG, Ward SA. Parasitology. A requiem for chloroquine. Science. 2002 Oct 04; 298(5591):74-5. PMID: 12364772.
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    121. Spiller DG, Bray PG, Hughes RH, Ward SA, White MR. The pH of the Plasmodium falciparum digestive vacuole: holy grail or dead-end trail? Trends Parasitol. 2002 Oct; 18(10):441-4. PMID: 12377594.
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    122. Jones K, Ward SA. Biguanide-atovaquone synergy against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Aug; 46(8):2700-3. PMID: 12121961; PMCID: PMC127339.
    123. Hindley S, Ward SA, Storr RC, Searle NL, Bray PG, Park BK, Davies J, O'Neill PM. Mechanism-based design of parasite-targeted artemisinin derivatives: synthesis and antimalarial activity of new diamine containing analogues. J Med Chem. 2002 Feb 28; 45(5):1052-63. PMID: 11855985.
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    124. Bray PG, Saliba KJ, Davies JD, Spiller DG, White MR, Kirk K, Ward SA. Distribution of acridine orange fluorescence in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes and its implications for the evaluation of digestive vacuole pH. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002 Feb; 119(2):301-4; discussion 307-9, 311-3. PMID: 11814584.
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    125. Jones K, Bray PG, Khoo SH, Davey RA, Meaden ER, Ward SA, Back DJ. P-Glycoprotein and transporter MRP1 reduce HIV protease inhibitor uptake in CD4 cells: potential for accelerated viral drug resistance? AIDS. 2001 Jul 27; 15(11):1353-8. PMID: 11504956.
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    126. Stead AM, Bray PG, Edwards IG, DeKoning HP, Elford BC, Stocks PA, Ward SA. Diamidine compounds: selective uptake and targeting in Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May; 59(5):1298-306. PMID: 11306715.
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    127. Ward SA, Bray PG. Is reversal of chloroquine resistance ready for the clinic? Lancet. 2001 Mar 24; 357(9260):904. PMID: 11289344.
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    128. Smith SL, Sadler CJ, Dodd CC, Edwards G, Ward SA, Park BK, McLean WG. The role of glutathione in the neurotoxicity of artemisinin derivatives in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001 Feb 15; 61(4):409-16. PMID: 11226374.
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    129. O'Neill PM, Miller A, Bishop LP, Hindley S, Maggs JL, Ward SA, Roberts SM, Scheinmann F, Stachulski AV, Posner GH, Park BK. Synthesis, antimalarial activity, biomimetic iron(II) chemistry, and in vivo metabolism of novel, potent C-10-phenoxy derivatives of dihydroartemisinin. J Med Chem. 2001 Jan 04; 44(1):58-68. PMID: 11141088.
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    130. Haruki K, Bray PG, Ono M, Ward SA. Potent enhancement of the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine by the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid cepharanthin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Oct; 44(10):2706-8. PMID: 10991848; PMCID: PMC90139.
    131. Li GD, Li JL, Mugthin M, Ward SA. Molecular cloning of a gene encoding a 20S proteasome beta subunit from Plasmodium falciparum. Int J Parasitol. 2000 May; 30(6):729-33. PMID: 10856507.
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    132. Rawden HC, Kokwaro GO, Ward SA, Edwards G. Relative contribution of cytochromes P-450 and flavin-containing monoxygenases to the metabolism of albendazole by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Apr; 49(4):313-22. PMID: 10759686; PMCID: PMC2014938.
    133. O'Neill PM, Bishop LP, Searle NL, Maggs JL, Storr RC, Ward SA, Park BK, Mabbs F. Biomimetic Fe(II)-mediated degradation of arteflene (Ro-42-1611). The first EPR spin-trapping evidence for the previously postulated secondary carbon-centered cyclohexyl radical. J Org Chem. 2000 Mar 10; 65(5):1578-82. PMID: 10814129.
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    134. Maggs JL, Bishop LP, Edwards G, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Winstanley PA, Park BK. Biliary metabolites of beta-artemether in rats: biotransformations of an antimalarial endoperoxide. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Feb; 28(2):209-17. PMID: 10640520.
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    135. O'Neill PM, Searle NL, Kan KW, Storr RC, Maggs JL, Ward SA, Raynes K, Park BK. Novel, potent, semisynthetic antimalarial carba analogues of the first-generation 1,2,4-trioxane artemether. J Med Chem. 1999 Dec 30; 42(26):5487-93. PMID: 10639291.
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    136. Ginsburg H, Ward SA, Bray PG. An integrated model of chloroquine action. Parasitol Today. 1999 Sep; 15(9):357-60. PMID: 10461161.
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    137. Bray PG, Ward SA, Ginsburg H. Na+/H+ antiporter, chloroquine uptake and drug resistance: inconsistencies in a newly proposed model. Parasitol Today. 1999 Sep; 15(9):360-3. PMID: 10461162.
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    138. Mohamed SS, Khalid SA, Ward SA, Wan TS, Tang HP, Zheng M, Haynes RK, Edwards G. Simultaneous determination of artemether and its major metabolite dihydroartemisinin in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999 Aug 20; 731(2):251-60. PMID: 10510778.
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    139. Raynes KJ, Stocks PA, O'Neill PM, Park BK, Ward SA. New 4-aminoquinoline Mannich base antimalarials. 1. Effect of an alkyl substituent in the 5'-position of the 4'-hydroxyanilino side chain. J Med Chem. 1999 Jul 29; 42(15):2747-51. PMID: 10425085.
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    140. Bray PG, Janneh O, Raynes KJ, Mungthin M, Ginsburg H, Ward SA. Cellular uptake of chloroquine is dependent on binding to ferriprotoporphyrin IX and is independent of NHE activity in Plasmodium falciparum. J Cell Biol. 1999 Apr 19; 145(2):363-76. PMID: 10209030; PMCID: PMC2133118.
    141. Mungthin M, Bray PG, Ward SA. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of recently adapted isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Mar; 60(3):469-74. PMID: 10466979.
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    142. Bray PG, Janneh O, Ward SA. Chloroquine uptake and activity is determined by binding to ferriprotoporphyrin IX in Plasmodium falciparum. Novartis Found Symp. 1999; 226:252-60; discussion 260-4. PMID: 10645550.
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    143. Mungthin M, Bray PG, Ridley RG, Ward SA. Central role of hemoglobin degradation in mechanisms of action of 4-aminoquinolines, quinoline methanols, and phenanthrene methanols. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Nov; 42(11):2973-7. PMID: 9797235; PMCID: PMC105975.
    144. Ruscoe JE, Tingle MD, O'Neill PM, Ward SA, Park BK. Effect of disposition of mannich antimalarial agents on their pharmacology and toxicology. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Sep; 42(9):2410-6. PMID: 9736572; PMCID: PMC105842.
    145. Smith SL, Maggs JL, Edwards G, Ward SA, Park BK, McLean WG. The role of iron in neurotoxicity: a study of novel antimalarial drugs. Neurotoxicology. 1998 Aug-Oct; 19(4-5):557-9. PMID: 9745911.
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    146. Bray PG, Mungthin M, Ridley RG, Ward SA. Access to hematin: the basis of chloroquine resistance. Mol Pharmacol. 1998 Jul; 54(1):170-9. PMID: 9658203.
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    147. Fishwick J, Edwards G, Ward SA, McLean WG. Binding of dihydroartemisinin to differentiating neuroblastoma cells and rat cortical homogenate. Neurotoxicology. 1998 Jun; 19(3):405-12. PMID: 9621346.
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    148. Fishwick J, Edwards G, Ward SA, McLean WG. Morphological and immunocytochemical effects of dihydroartemisinin on differentiating NB2a neuroblastoma cells. Neurotoxicology. 1998 Jun; 19(3):393-403. PMID: 9621345.
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    149. Helsby NA, Ward SA, Parslew RA, Friedmann PS, Rhodes LE. Hepatic cytochrome P450 CYP2C activity in psoriasis: studies using proguanil as a probe compound. Acta Derm Venereol. 1998 Mar; 78(2):81-3. PMID: 9534880.
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    150. Hawley SR, Bray PG, Mungthin M, Atkinson JD, O'Neill PM, Ward SA. Relationship between antimalarial drug activity, accumulation, and inhibition of heme polymerization in Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Mar; 42(3):682-6. PMID: 9517951; PMCID: PMC105517.
    151. Tingle MD, Mahmud R, Maggs JL, Hawley S, Coleman MD, Ward SA, Park BK. The effect of 2,2'-substitution on the metabolism and toxicity of dapsone in vitro and in vivo. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 1998 Mar; 5(2):145-53. PMID: 21781861.
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    152. McLean WG, Ward SA. In vitro neurotoxicity of artemisinin derivatives. Med Trop (Mars). 1998; 58(3 Suppl):28-31. PMID: 10212894.
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    153. Bray PG, Ward SA. A comparison of the phenomenology and genetics of multidrug resistance in cancer cells and quinoline resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Jan; 77(1):1-28. PMID: 9500157.
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    154. O'Neill PM, Bray PG, Hawley SR, Ward SA, Park BK. 4-Aminoquinolines--past, present, and future: a chemical perspective. Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Jan; 77(1):29-58. PMID: 9500158.
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    155. O'Neill PM, Willock DJ, Hawley SR, Bray PG, Storr RC, Ward SA, Park BK. Synthesis, antimalarial activity, and molecular modeling of tebuquine analogues. J Med Chem. 1997 Feb 14; 40(4):437-48. PMID: 9046333.
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    156. Smith SL, Fishwick J, McLean WG, Edwards G, Ward SA. Enhanced in vitro neurotoxicity of artemisinin derivatives in the presence of haemin. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jan 10; 53(1):5-10. PMID: 8960057.
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    157. Ward SA, Bray PG, Hawley SR. Quinoline resistance mechanisms in Plasmodium falciparum: the debate goes on. Parasitology. 1997; 114 Suppl:S125-36. PMID: 9309774.
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    158. Ritchie GY, Mungthin M, Green JE, Bray PG, Hawley SR, Ward SA. In vitro selection of halofantrine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is not associated with increased expression of Pgh1. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1996 Dec 02; 83(1):35-46. PMID: 9010840.
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    159. Bray PG, Hawley SR, Mungthin M, Ward SA. Physicochemical properties correlated with drug resistance and the reversal of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Dec; 50(6):1559-66. PMID: 8967978.
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    160. Bray PG, Hawley SR, Ward SA. 4-Aminoquinoline resistance of Plasmodium falciparum: insights from the study of amodiaquine uptake. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Dec; 50(6):1551-8. PMID: 8967977.
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    161. O'Neill PM, Bishop LP, Storr RC, Hawley SR, Maggs JL, Ward SA, Park BK. Mechanism-based design of parasite-targeted artemisinin derivatives: synthesis and antimalarial activity of benzylamino and alkylamino ether analogues of artemisinin. J Med Chem. 1996 Oct 25; 39(22):4511-4. PMID: 8893847.
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    162. Hawley SR, Bray PG, O'Neill PM, Naisbitt DJ, Park BK, Ward SA. Manipulation of the N-alkyl substituent in amodiaquine to overcome the verapamil-sensitive chloroquine resistance component. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996 Oct; 40(10):2345-9. PMID: 8891142; PMCID: PMC163532.
    163. Hawley SR, Bray PG, O'Neill PM, Park BK, Ward SA. The role of drug accumulation in 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial potency. The influence of structural substitution and physicochemical properties. Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Sep 13; 52(5):723-33. PMID: 8765470.
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    164. Hawley SR, Bray PG, Park BK, Ward SA. Amodiaquine accumulation in Plasmodium falciparum as a possible explanation for its superior antimalarial activity over chloroquine. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1996 Sep; 80(1):15-25. PMID: 8885219.
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    165. Fishwick J, McLean WG, Edwards G, Ward SA. The toxicity of artemisinin and related compounds on neuronal and glial cells in culture. Chem Biol Interact. 1995 Jun 14; 96(3):263-71. PMID: 7750165.
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    166. Ruscoe JE, Jewell H, Maggs JL, O'Neill PM, Storr RC, Ward SA, Park BK. The effect of chemical substitution on the metabolic activation, metabolic detoxication, and pharmacological activity of amodiaquine in the mouse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Apr; 273(1):393-404. PMID: 7714794.
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    167. Ward SA, Bray PG, Mungthin M, Hawley SR. Current views on the mechanisms of resistance to quinoline-containing drugs in Plasmodium falciparum. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1995 Apr; 89(2):121-4. PMID: 7605121.
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    168. Wright JD, Helsby NA, Ward SA. The role of S-mephenytoin hydroxylase (CYP2C19) in the metabolism of the antimalarial biguanides. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Apr; 39(4):441-4. PMID: 7640152; PMCID: PMC1365133.
    169. Haruki K, Bray PG, Ward SA, Hommel M, Ritchie GY. Chloroquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum: further evidence for a lack of association with mutations of the pfmdr1 gene. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1994 Nov-Dec; 88(6):694. PMID: 7886776.
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    170. Muhia DK, Thomas CG, Ward SA, Edwards G, Mberu EK, Watkins WM. Ferriprotoporphyrin catalysed decomposition of artemether: analytical and pharmacological implications. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Aug 30; 48(5):889-95. PMID: 8093101.
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    171. Edwards G, Winstanley PA, Ward SA. Clinical pharmacokinetics in the treatment of tropical diseases. Some applications and limitations. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1994 Aug; 27(2):150-65. PMID: 7955777.
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    172. O'Neill PM, Harrison AC, Storr RC, Hawley SR, Ward SA, Park BK. The effect of fluorine substitution on the metabolism and antimalarial activity of amodiaquine. J Med Chem. 1994 Apr 29; 37(9):1362-70. PMID: 8176713.
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    173. Na Bangchang K, Karbwang J, Thomas CG, Thanavibul A, Sukontason K, Ward SA, Edwards G. Pharmacokinetics of artemether after oral administration to healthy Thai males and patients with acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1994 Mar; 37(3):249-53. PMID: 8198933; PMCID: PMC1364755.
    174. Bray PG, Boulter MK, Ritchie GY, Howells RE, Ward SA. Relationship of global chloroquine transport and reversal of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1994 Jan; 63(1):87-94. PMID: 8183326.
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    175. Kokwaro GO, Szwandt IS, Glazier AP, Ward SA, Edwards G. Metabolism of caffeine and theophylline in rats with malaria and endotoxin-induced fever. Xenobiotica. 1993 Dec; 23(12):1391-7. PMID: 8135041.
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    176. Nateghpour M, Ward SA, Howells RE. Development of halofantrine resistance and determination of cross-resistance patterns in Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Nov; 37(11):2337-43. PMID: 8285616; PMCID: PMC192389.
    177. Bray PG, Ward SA. Malaria chemotherapy: resistance to quinoline containing drugs in Plasmodium falciparum. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1993 Oct 01; 113(1):1-7. PMID: 8243975.
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    178. Ndifor AM, Howells RE, Bray PG, Ngu JL, Ward SA. Enhancement of drug susceptibility in Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei in vivo by mixed-function oxidase inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Jun; 37(6):1318-23. PMID: 8328780; PMCID: PMC187959.
    179. Helsby NA, Edwards G, Breckenridge AM, Ward SA. The multiple dose pharmacokinetics of proguanil. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1993 Jun; 35(6):653-6. PMID: 8329294; PMCID: PMC1381611.
    180. Boulter MK, Bray PG, Howells RE, Ward SA. The potential of desipramine to reverse chloroquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum is reduced by its binding to plasma protein. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1993 May-Jun; 87(3):303. PMID: 8236399.
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    181. Kokwaro GO, Glazier AP, Ward SA, Breckenridge AM, Edwards G. Effect of malaria infection and endotoxin-induced fever on phenacetin O-deethylation by rat liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Mar 24; 45(6):1235-41. PMID: 8466544.
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    182. Kokwaro GO, Ismail S, Glazier AP, Ward SA, Edwards G. Effect of malaria infection and endotoxin-induced fever on the metabolism of antipyrine and metronidazole in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Mar 24; 45(6):1243-9. PMID: 8466545.
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    183. Edwards G, McGrath CS, Ward SA, Supanaranond W, Pukrittayakamee S, Davis TM, White NJ. Interactions among primaquine, malaria infection and other antimalarials in Thai subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1993 Feb; 35(2):193-8. PMID: 8443039; PMCID: PMC1381514.
    184. Warbrick EV, Ward SA. The effect of catecholamines and catecholamine antagonists on the third larval moult of Dirofilaria immitis in vitro. J Helminthol. 1992 Dec; 66(4):273-8. PMID: 1293194.
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    185. Thomas CG, Ward SA, Edwards G. Selective determination, in plasma, of artemether and its major metabolite, dihydroartemisinin, by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. J Chromatogr. 1992 Nov 27; 583(1):131-6. PMID: 1484087.
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    186. Theakston RD, Fan HW, Warrell DA, Da Silva WD, Ward SA, Higashi HG. Use of enzyme immunoassays to compare the effect and assess the dosage regimens of three Brazilian Bothrops antivenoms. The Butantan Institute Antivenom Study Group (BIASG). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Nov; 47(5):593-604. PMID: 1449200.
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    187. Wanwimolruk S, Edwards G, Ward SA, Breckenridge AM. The binding of the antimalarial arteether to human plasma proteins in-vitro. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1992 Nov; 44(11):940-2. PMID: 1361544.
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    188. Bray PG, Howells RE, Ritchie GY, Ward SA. Rapid chloroquine efflux phenotype in both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. A correlation of chloroquine sensitivity with energy-dependent drug accumulation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Oct 06; 44(7):1317-24. PMID: 1417955.
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    189. Edwards G, Ward SA. Methods in tropical pharmacology. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1992 Jun; 33(6):573-4. PMID: 1389928; PMCID: PMC1381347.
    190. Ndifor AM, Howells RE, Ward SA. Chloroquine sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum in vivo in a savanna town in Cameroon. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992 May-Jun; 86(3):229-30. PMID: 1412637.
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    191. Bray PG, Howells RE, Ward SA. Vacuolar acidification and chloroquine sensitivity in Plasmodium falciparum. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Mar 17; 43(6):1219-27. PMID: 1562274.
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    192. Winstanley PA, Newton CR, Pasvol G, Kirkham FJ, Mberu E, Peshu N, Ward SA, Were JB, Warrell DA, Marsh K. Prophylactic phenobarbitone in young children with severe falciparum malaria: pharmacokinetics and clinical effects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1992 Feb; 33(2):149-54. PMID: 1550696; PMCID: PMC1381300.
    193. Karbwang J, Ward SA, Milton KA, Na Bangchang K, Edwards G. Pharmacokinetics of halofantrine in healthy Thai volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1991 Nov; 32(5):639-40. PMID: 1954081; PMCID: PMC1368647.
    194. Mansor SM, Ward SA, Edwards G. The effect of fever on quinine and quinidine disposition in the rat. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1991 Oct; 43(10):705-8. PMID: 1682445.
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    195. Mberu EK, Ward SA, Winstanley PA, Watkins WM. Measurement of quinine in filter paper-absorbed blood by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1991 Sep 18; 570(1):180-4. PMID: 1797824.
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    196. Mansor SM, Molyneux ME, Taylor TE, Ward SA, Wirima JJ, Edwards G. Effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection on the plasma concentration of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and the binding of quinine in Malawian children. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1991 Sep; 32(3):317-21. PMID: 1777367; PMCID: PMC1368524.
    197. Mansor SM, Ward SA, Edwards G, Hoaksey PE, Breckenridge AM. The influence of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein on quinine and quinidine disposition in the rat isolated perfused liver preparation. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1991 Sep; 43(9):650-4. PMID: 1685525.
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    198. Mansor SM, Edwards G, Roberts PJ, Ward SA. The effect of malaria infection on paracetamol disposition in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1991 Jun 01; 41(11):1707-11. PMID: 2043159.
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    199. Ward SA, Helsby NA, Skjelbo E, Brøsen K, Gram LF, Breckenridge AM. The activation of the biguanide antimalarial proguanil co-segregates with the mephenytoin oxidation polymorphism--a panel study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1991 Jun; 31(6):689-92. PMID: 1867963; PMCID: PMC1368581.
    200. Hoaksey PE, Awadzi K, Ward SA, Coventry PA, Orme ML, Edwards G. Rapid and sensitive method for the determination of albendazole and albendazole sulphoxide in biological fluids. J Chromatogr. 1991 May 03; 566(1):244-9. PMID: 1885718.
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    201. Helsby NA, Watkins WM, Mberu E, Ward SA. Inter-individual variation in the metabolic activation of the antimalarial biguanides. Parasitol Today. 1991 May; 7(5):120-3. PMID: 15463463.
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    202. Mansor SM, Ward SA, Edwards G. The effect of malaria infection on antipyrine metabolite formation in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1991 Apr 15; 41(8):1264-6. PMID: 2009102.
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    203. Karbwang J, Milton KA, Na Bangchang K, Ward SA, Edwards G, Bunnag D. Pharmacokinetics of halofantrine in Thai patients with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1991 Apr; 31(4):484-7. PMID: 2049260; PMCID: PMC1368339.
    204. Helsby NA, Ward SA, Edwards G, Howells RE, Breckenridge AM. The pharmacokinetics and activation of proguanil in man: consequences of variability in drug metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 Oct; 30(4):593-8. PMID: 2291871; PMCID: PMC1368250.
    205. Helsby NA, Ward SA, Howells RE, Breckenridge AM. In vitro metabolism of the biguanide antimalarials in human liver microsomes: evidence for a role of the mephenytoin hydroxylase (P450 MP) enzyme. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 Aug; 30(2):287-91. PMID: 2206791; PMCID: PMC1368230.
    206. Mansor SM, Taylor TE, McGrath CS, Edwards G, Ward SA, Wirima JJ, Molyneux ME. The safety and kinetics of intramuscular quinine in Malawian children with moderately severe falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990 Jul-Aug; 84(4):482-7. PMID: 2091333.
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    207. Watkins WM, Mberu EK, Nevill CG, Ward SA, Breckenridge AM, Koech DK. Variability in the metabolism of proguanil to the active metabolite cycloguanil in healthy Kenyan adults. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990 Jul-Aug; 84(4):492-5. PMID: 2091335.
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    208. Mansor SM, Ward SA, Edwards G, Hoaksey PE, Breckenridge AM. The effect of malaria infection on the disposition of quinine and quinidine in the rat isolated perfused liver preparation. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990 Jun; 42(6):428-32. PMID: 1979624.
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    209. Milton KA, Hoaksey PE, Ward SA, Edwards G. Lack of effect of halofantrine on hepatic drug metabolism in the rat in vivo and in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990 May 15; 39(10):1581-6. PMID: 2337415.
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    210. Idowu OR, Ward SA, Edwards G. Determination of artelinic acid in blood plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1989 Oct 27; 495:167-77. PMID: 2613801.
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    211. Idowu OR, Edwards G, Ward SA, Orme ML, Breckenridge AM. Determination of arteether in blood plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection after hydrolysis acid. J Chromatogr. 1989 Aug 25; 493(1):125-36. PMID: 2778002.
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    212. Milton KA, Edwards G, Ward SA, Orme ML, Breckenridge AM. Pharmacokinetics of halofantrine in man: effects of food and dose size. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1989 Jul; 28(1):71-7. PMID: 2775616; PMCID: PMC1379972.
    213. Ward SA, Watkins WM, Mberu E, Saunders JE, Koech DK, Gilles HM, Howells RE, Breckenridge AM. Inter-subject variability in the metabolism of proguanil to the active metabolite cycloguanil in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1989 Jun; 27(6):781-7. PMID: 2757894; PMCID: PMC1379805.
    214. Milton KA, Ward SA, Edwards G. Determination of halofantrine and its principal metabolite desbutylhalofantrine in biological fluids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1988 Dec 09; 433:339-44. PMID: 3235565.
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    215. Nicholl DD, Edwards G, Ward SA, Orme ML, Breckenridge AM. The disposition of primaquine in the isolated perfused rat liver. Stereoselective formation of the carboxylic acid metabolite. Biochem Pharmacol. 1987 Oct 15; 36(20):3365-9. PMID: 3675598.
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    216. Ward SA, Mihaly GW, Nicholl DD, Breckenridge AM, Edwards G. The pharmacokinetics of (+)- and (-)-primaquine in the isolated perfused rat liver preparation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1987 Jul 01; 36(13):2238-9. PMID: 3606640.
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    217. Rombo L, Edwards G, Ward SA, Eriksson G, Lindquist L, Lindberg A, Runehagen A, Björkman A, Hylander NO. Seven patients with relapses of Plasmodium vivax or P. ovale despite primaquine treatment. Trop Med Parasitol. 1987 Mar; 38(1):49-50. PMID: 3299660.
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    218. Coleman MD, Mihaly GW, Ward SA, Edwards G, Howells RE, Breckenridge AM. The sustained release of pyrimethamine base or pyrimethamine pamoate from a biodegradable injectable depot preparation in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1985 Dec; 37(12):878-83. PMID: 2868095.
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    219. Edwards G, Rodick CL, Ward SA, Awadzi K, Orme ML, Breckenridge AM. Determination of suramin in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1985 Sep 13; 343(1):224-8. PMID: 4066859.
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    220. Ward SA, Mihaly GW, Nicholl DD, Edwards G, Breckenridge AM. The disposition of primaquine in the isolated perfused rat liver. Effect of dose size. Drug Metab Dispos. 1985 Jul-Aug; 13(4):425-9. PMID: 2863105.
      View in: PubMed
    221. Coleman MD, Mihaly GW, Ward SA, Edwards G, Howells RE, Breckenridge AM. The disposition of pyrimethamine in the isolated perfused rat liver. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985 Jun 15; 34(12):2193-7. PMID: 4004937.
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    222. Ward SA, Mihaly GW, Edwards G, Looareesuwan S, Phillips RE, Chanthavanich P, Warrell DA, Orme ML, Breckenridge AM. Pharmacokinetics of primaquine in man. II. Comparison of acute vs chronic dosage in Thai subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1985 Jun; 19(6):751-5. PMID: 4027118; PMCID: PMC1463877.
    223. Mihaly GW, Ward SA, Edwards G, Nicholl DD, Orme ML, Breckenridge AM. Pharmacokinetics of primaquine in man. I. Studies of the absolute bioavailability and effects of dose size. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1985 Jun; 19(6):745-50. PMID: 4027117; PMCID: PMC1463857.
    224. Coleman MD, Mihaly GW, Edwards G, Ward SA, Howells RE, Breckenridge AM. Pyrimethamine pharmacokinetics and its tissue localization in mice: effect of dose size. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1985 Mar; 37(3):170-4. PMID: 2858563.
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    225. Mihaly GW, Ward SA, Nicholl DD, Edwards G, Breckenridge AM. The effects of primaquine stereoisomers and metabolites on drug metabolism in the isolated perfused rat liver and in vitro rat liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985 Feb 01; 34(3):331-6. PMID: 3970715.
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    226. Mihaly GW, Nicholl DD, Edwards G, Ward SA, Orme ML, Warrell DA, Breckenridge AM. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of amodiaquine in human plasma. J Chromatogr. 1985 Jan 11; 337(1):166-71. PMID: 3980649.
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    227. Mihaly GW, Ward SA, Edwards G, Orme ML, Breckenridge AM. Pharmacokinetics of primaquine in man: identification of the carboxylic acid derivative as a major plasma metabolite. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Apr; 17(4):441-6. PMID: 6721990; PMCID: PMC1463409.
    228. Ward SA, Edwards G, Orme ML, Breckenridge AM. Determination of primaquine in biological fluids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1984 Jan 13; 305(1):239-43. PMID: 6707149.
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    229. Back DJ, Purba HS, Park BK, Ward SA, Orme ML. Effect of chloroquine and primaquine on antipyrine metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1983 Nov; 16(5):497-502. PMID: 6639836; PMCID: PMC1428067.
    230. Adjepon-Yamoah KK, Edwards G, Breckenridge AM, Orme ML, Ward SA. The effect of renal disease on the pharmacokinetics of diethylcarbamazine in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982 Jun; 13(6):829-34. PMID: 7093114; PMCID: PMC1402015.
    231. Edwards G, Breckenridge AM, Adjepon-Yamoah KK, Orme ML, Ward SA. The effect of variations in urinary pH on the pharmacokinetics of diethylcarbamazine. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1981 Dec; 12(6):807-12. PMID: 7340883; PMCID: PMC1401934.
    232. Edwards G, Awadzi K, Breckenridge AM, Gilles HM, Orme ML, Ward SA. Diethylcarbamazine disposition in patients with onchocerciasis. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981 Oct; 30(4):551-7. PMID: 7285488.
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    233. Edwards G, Ward SA, Breckenridge AM, Orme ML. Identification and quantification of diethylcarbamazine and diethylcarbamazine N-oxide in rat urine. Xenobiotica. 1981 Apr; 11(4):281-4. PMID: 7303719.
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