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Dr Wilbur Kearse Milhous

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Serebrennikova YM, Patel J, Milhous WK, Garcia-Rubio LH, Huffman DE, Smith JM. Spectrophotometric detection of susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs. Malar J. 2013 Aug 30; 12:305. PMID: 23992478; PMCID: PMC3849014.
    2. Peric M, Fajdetic A, Rupcic R, Alihodžic S, Ziher D, Bukvic Krajacic M, Smith KS, Ivezic-Schönfeld Z, Padovan J, Landek G, Jelic D, Hutinec A, Mesic M, Ager A, Ellis WY, Milhous WK, Ohrt C, Spaventi R. Antimalarial activity of 9a-N substituted 15-membered azalides with improved in vitro and in vivo activity over azithromycin. J Med Chem. 2012 Feb 09; 55(3):1389-401. PMID: 22148880.
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    3. Dow GS, Gettayacamin M, Hansukjariya P, Imerbsin R, Komcharoen S, Sattabongkot J, Kyle D, Milhous W, Cozens S, Kenworthy D, Miller A, Veazey J, Ohrt C. Radical curative efficacy of tafenoquine combination regimens in Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Malar J. 2011 Jul 29; 10:212. PMID: 21801400; PMCID: PMC3161915.
    4. Bukvic Krajacic M, Peric M, Smith KS, Schönfeld ZI, Žiher D, Fajdetic A, Kujundžic N, Schönfeld W, Landek G, Padovan J, Jelic D, Ager A, Milhous WK, Ellis W, Spaventi R, Ohrt C. Synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and antimalarial activity of ureas and thioureas of 15-membered azalides. J Med Chem. 2011 May 26; 54(10):3595-605. PMID: 21476508.
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    5. Hutinec A, Rupcic R, Ziher D, Smith KS, Milhous W, Ellis W, Ohrt C, Schönfeld ZI. An automated, polymer-assisted strategy for the preparation of urea and thiourea derivatives of 15-membered azalides as potential antimalarial chemotherapeutics. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Mar 01; 19(5):1692-701. PMID: 21316974.
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    6. Kazura JW, Ripp J, Milhous WK. Back to the future: the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, its journal and the continuing commitment to global health. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Jan; 84(1):3-4. PMID: 21212193; PMCID: PMC3005509.
    7. Chattopadhyay R, Velmurugan S, Chakiath C, Andrews Donkor L, Milhous W, Barnwell JW, Collins WE, Hoffman SL. Establishment of an in vitro assay for assessing the effects of drugs on the liver stages of Plasmodium vivax malaria. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 09; 5(12):e14275. PMID: 21151554; PMCID: PMC3000326.
    8. Gutteridge CE, Hoffman MM, Bhattacharjee AK, Milhous WK, Gerena L. In vitro efficacy of 7-benzylamino-1-isoquinolinamines against Plasmodium falciparum related to the efficacy of chalcones. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jan 15; 21(2):786-9. PMID: 21168330.
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    9. Serebrennikova YM, Patel J, Milhous WK, García-Rubio LH. Quantitative analysis of morphological alterations in Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells through theoretical interpretation of spectral measurements. J Theor Biol. 2010 Aug 21; 265(4):493-500. PMID: 20665965.
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    10. Whitman TJ, Coyne PE, Magill AJ, Blazes DL, Green MD, Milhous WK, Burgess TH, Freilich D, Tasker SA, Azar RG, Endy TP, Clagett CD, Deye GA, Shanks GD, Martin GJ. An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in U.S. Marines deployed to Liberia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Aug; 83(2):258-65. PMID: 20682864; PMCID: PMC2911167.
    11. Milhous WK, Weina PJ. Plant science. The botanical solution for malaria. Science. 2010 Jan 15; 327(5963):279-80. PMID: 20075238.
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    12. Obaldía N, Milhous W, Kyle D. Adaptation of a Thai multidrug-resistant C2A clone of Plasmodium falciparum to Aotus monkeys and its preliminary in vivo antimalarial drug efficacy-resistance profile. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Oct; 81(4):587-94. PMID: 19815871.
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    13. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Sowunmi A, Hudson T, O'Neil M, Milhous W, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Selection of Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 alleles in asexual stages and gametocytes by artemether-lumefantrine in Nigerian children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Mar; 53(3):888-95. PMID: 19075074; PMCID: PMC2650543.
    14. Opsenica I, Opsenica D, Lanteri CA, Anova L, Milhous WK, Smith KS, Solaja BA. New chimeric antimalarials with 4-aminoquinoline moiety linked to a tetraoxane skeleton. J Med Chem. 2008 Oct 09; 51(19):6216-9. PMID: 18774792.
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    15. Solaja BA, Opsenica D, Smith KS, Milhous WK, Terzic N, Opsenica I, Burnett JC, Nuss J, Gussio R, Bavari S. Novel 4-aminoquinolines active against chloroquine-resistant and sensitive P. falciparum strains that also inhibit botulinum serotype A. J Med Chem. 2008 Aug 14; 51(15):4388-91. PMID: 18637666.
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    16. Opsenica I, Opsenica D, Smith KS, Milhous WK, Solaja BA. Chemical stability of the peroxide bond enables diversified synthesis of potent tetraoxane antimalarials. J Med Chem. 2008 Apr 10; 51(7):2261-6. PMID: 18330976.
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    17. Mui EJ, Schiehser GA, Milhous WK, Hsu H, Roberts CW, Kirisits M, Muench S, Rice D, Dubey JP, Fowble JW, Rathod PK, Queener SF, Liu SR, Jacobus DP, McLeod R. Novel triazine JPC-2067-B inhibits Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008 Mar 05; 2(3):e190. PMID: 18320016; PMCID: PMC2254147.
    18. Diaz DS, Kozar MP, Smith KS, Asher CO, Sousa JC, Schiehser GA, Jacobus DP, Milhous WK, Skillman DR, Shearer TW. Role of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in the conversion of phenoxypropoxybiguanide analogs in human liver microsomes to potent antimalarial dihydrotriazines. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Feb; 36(2):380-5. PMID: 18006651.
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    19. Guan J, Wang X, Smith K, Ager A, Gettayacamin M, Kyle DE, Milhous WK, Kozar MP, Magill AJ, Lin AJ. Malaria causal prophylactic activity of imidazolidinedione derivatives. J Med Chem. 2007 Nov 29; 50(24):6226-31. PMID: 17967003.
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    20. Terzic N, Opsenica D, Milic D, Tinant B, Smith KS, Milhous WK, Solaja BA. Deoxycholic acid-derived tetraoxane antimalarials and antiproliferatives(1). J Med Chem. 2007 Oct 18; 50(21):5118-27. PMID: 17887664.
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    21. Li Q, Kozar MP, Shearer TW, Xie LH, Lin AJ, Smith KS, Si Y, Anova L, Zhang J, Milhous WK, Skillman DR. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and hydrolysis of oral pyrroloquinazolinediamines administered in single and multiple doses in rats. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Aug; 51(8):2898-904. PMID: 17562804; PMCID: PMC1932520.
    22. Li Q, Gerena L, Xie L, Zhang J, Kyle D, Milhous W. Development and validation of flow cytometric measurement for parasitemia in cultures of P. falciparum vitally stained with YOYO-1. Cytometry A. 2007 May; 71(5):297-307. PMID: 17279569.
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    23. Xie L, Li Q, Johnson J, Zhang J, Milhous W, Kyle D. Development and validation of flow cytometric measurement for parasitaemia using autofluorescence and YOYO-1 in rodent malaria. Parasitology. 2007 Aug; 134(Pt 9):1151-62. PMID: 17445324.
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    24. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Milner D, Sarr O, Sowunmi A, Kyle DE, Milhous WK, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Confirmation of emergence of mutations associated with atovaquone-proguanil resistance in unexposed Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Africa. Malar J. 2006 Oct 04; 5:82. PMID: 17020611; PMCID: PMC1594577.
    25. Gbotosho GO, Ogundahunsi OA, Happi CT, Kyle DE, Gerena L, Milhous WK, Sowunmi A, Oduola AM, Salako LA. The effects of alpha1-acid glycoprotein on the reversal of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006 Oct; 100(7):571-8. PMID: 16989682.
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    26. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Sowunmi A, Bolaji OM, Fateye BA, Kyle DE, Milhous W, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Linkage disequilibrium between two distinct loci in chromosomes 5 and 7 of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo chloroquine resistance in Southwest Nigeria. Parasitol Res. 2006 Dec; 100(1):141-8. PMID: 16874478.
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    27. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Bolaji OM, Sowunmi A, Kyle DE, Milhous W, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Association between mutations in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 genes and in vivo amodiaquine resistance in P. falciparum malaria-infected children in Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jul; 75(1):155-61. PMID: 16837724.
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    28. Opsenica I, Terzic N, Opsenica D, Angelovski G, Lehnig M, Eilbracht P, Tinant B, Juranic Z, Smith KS, Yang YS, Diaz DS, Smith PL, Milhous WK, Dokovic D, Solaja BA. Tetraoxane antimalarials and their reaction with Fe(II). J Med Chem. 2006 Jun 29; 49(13):3790-9. PMID: 16789736.
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    29. Zhang Q, Guan J, Sacci J, Ager A, Ellis W, Milhous W, Kyle D, Lin AJ. Unambiguous synthesis and prophylactic antimalarial activities of imidazolidinedione derivatives. J Med Chem. 2005 Oct 06; 48(20):6472-81. PMID: 16190773.
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    30. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Akinboye DO, Yusuf BO, Ebong OO, Sowunmi A, Kyle DE, Milhous W, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum dhfr and dhps genes and age related in vivo sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in malaria-infected patients from Nigeria. Acta Trop. 2005 Sep; 95(3):183-93. PMID: 16023986.
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    31. Mui EJ, Jacobus D, Milhous WK, Schiehser G, Hsu H, Roberts CW, Kirisits MJ, McLeod R. Triazine Inhibits Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Aug; 49(8):3463-7. PMID: 16048961; PMCID: PMC1196210.
    32. Shearer TW, Kozar MP, O'Neil MT, Smith PL, Schiehser GA, Jacobus DP, Diaz DS, Yang YS, Milhous WK, Skillman DR. In vitro metabolism of phenoxypropoxybiguanide analogues in human liver microsomes to potent antimalarial dihydrotriazines. J Med Chem. 2005 Apr 21; 48(8):2805-13. PMID: 15828818.
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    33. Ockenhouse CF, Magill A, Smith D, Milhous W. History of U.S. military contributions to the study of malaria. Mil Med. 2005 Apr; 170(4 Suppl):12-6. PMID: 15916279.
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    34. Guan J, Zhang Q, Montip G, Karle JM, Ditusa CA, Milhous WK, Skillman DR, Lin AJ. Structure identification and prophylactic antimalarial efficacy of 2-guanidinoimidazolidinedione derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005 Feb 01; 13(3):699-704. PMID: 15653337.
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    35. Li Q, Lugt CB, Looareesuwan S, Krudsood S, Wilairatana P, Vannaphan S, Chalearmrult K, Milhous WK. Pharmacokinetic investigation on the therapeutic potential of artemotil (beta-arteether) in Thai patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec; 71(6):723-31. PMID: 15642961.
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    36. Roberts CW, Roberts F, Henriquez FL, Akiyoshi D, Samuel BU, Richards TA, Milhous W, Kyle D, McIntosh L, Hill GC, Chaudhuri M, Tzipori S, McLeod R. Evidence for mitochondrial-derived alternative oxidase in the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum: a potential anti-microbial agent target. Int J Parasitol. 2004 Mar 09; 34(3):297-308. PMID: 15003491.
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    37. Bhattacharjee AK, Hartell MG, Nichols DA, Hicks RP, Stanton B, van Hamont JE, Milhous WK. Structure-activity relationship study of antimalarial indolo [2,1-b]quinazoline-6,12-diones (tryptanthrins). Three dimensional pharmacophore modeling and identification of new antimalarial candidates. Eur J Med Chem. 2004 Jan; 39(1):59-67. PMID: 14987834.
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    38. Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Sowunmi A, Falade CO, Akinboye DO, Gerena L, Kyle DE, Milhous W, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Molecular analysis of Plasmodium falciparum recrudescent malaria infections in children treated with chloroquine in Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Jan; 70(1):20-6. PMID: 14971693.
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    39. Opsenica D, Angelovski G, Pocsfalvi G, Juranic Z, Zizak Z, Kyle D, Milhous WK, Solaja BA. Antimalarial and antiproliferative evaluation of bis-steroidal tetraoxanes. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003 Jul 03; 11(13):2761-8. PMID: 12788350.
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    40. Happi TC, Thomas SM, Gbotosho GO, Falade CO, Akinboye DO, Gerena L, Hudson T, Sowunmi A, Kyle DE, Milhous W, Wirth DF, Oduola AM. Point mutations in the pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes of Plasmodium falciparum and clinical response to chloroquine, among malaria patients from Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003 Jul; 97(5):439-51. PMID: 12930607.
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    41. Bhattacharjee AK, Kyle DE, Vennerstrom JL, Milhous WK. A 3D QSAR pharmacophore model and quantum chemical structure--activity analysis of chloroquine(CQ)-resistance reversal. J Chem Inf Comput Sci. 2002 Sep-Oct; 42(5):1212-20. PMID: 12377011.
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    42. Ohrt C, Willingmyre GD, Lee P, Knirsch C, Milhous W. Assessment of azithromycin in combination with other antimalarial drugs against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Aug; 46(8):2518-24. PMID: 12121927; PMCID: PMC127390.
    43. Riel MA, Kyle DE, Bhattacharjee AK, Milhous WK. Efficacy of proton pump inhibitor drugs against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and their probable pharmacophores. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Aug; 46(8):2627-32. PMID: 12121943; PMCID: PMC127369.
    44. Solaja BA, Terzic N, Pocsfalvi G, Gerena L, Tinant B, Opsenica D, Milhous WK. Mixed steroidal 1,2,4,5-tetraoxanes: antimalarial and antimycobacterial activity. J Med Chem. 2002 Aug 01; 45(16):3331-6. PMID: 12139444.
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    45. Guan J, Kyle DE, Gerena L, Zhang Q, Milhous WK, Lin AJ. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of new chemosensitizers in multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. J Med Chem. 2002 Jun 20; 45(13):2741-8. PMID: 12061877.
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    46. Li QG, Mog SR, Si YZ, Kyle DE, Gettayacamin M, Milhous WK. Neurotoxicity and efficacy of arteether related to its exposure times and exposure levels in rodents. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002 May; 66(5):516-25. PMID: 12201585.
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    47. Riel MA, Kyle DE, Milhous WK. Efficacy of scopadulcic acid A against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. J Nat Prod. 2002 Apr; 65(4):614-5. PMID: 11975516.
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    48. Roberts CW, Roberts F, Lyons RE, Kirisits MJ, Mui EJ, Finnerty J, Johnson JJ, Ferguson DJ, Coggins JR, Krell T, Coombs GH, Milhous WK, Kyle DE, Tzipori S, Barnwell J, Dame JB, Carlton J, McLeod R. The shikimate pathway and its branches in apicomplexan parasites. J Infect Dis. 2002 Feb 15; 185 Suppl 1:S25-36. PMID: 11865437.
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    49. Zhang P, Nicholson DE, Bujnicki JM, Su X, Brendle JJ, Ferdig M, Kyle DE, Milhous WK, Chiang PK. Angiogenesis inhibitors specific for methionine aminopeptidase 2 as drugs for malaria and leishmaniasis. J Biomed Sci. 2002 Jan-Feb; 9(1):34-40. PMID: 11810023.
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    50. Dietze R, Carvalho SF, Valli LC, Berman J, Brewer T, Milhous W, Sanchez J, Schuster B, Grogl M. Phase 2 trial of WR6026, an orally administered 8-aminoquinoline, in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania chagasi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Dec; 65(6):685-9. PMID: 11791957.
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    51. Iyer JK, Milhous WK, Cortese JF, Kublin JG, Plowe CV. Plasmodium falciparum cross-resistance between trimethoprim and pyrimethamine. Lancet. 2001 Sep 29; 358(9287):1066-7. PMID: 11589941.
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    52. Milhous W. Development of new drugs for chemoprophylaxis of malaria. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2001 Jul; 94(2 Pt 2):149-51. PMID: 16579068.
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    53. McLeod R, Muench SP, Rafferty JB, Kyle DE, Mui EJ, Kirisits MJ, Mack DG, Roberts CW, Samuel BU, Lyons RE, Dorris M, Milhous WK, Rice DW. Triclosan inhibits the growth of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii by inhibition of apicomplexan Fab I. Int J Parasitol. 2001 Feb; 31(2):109-13. PMID: 11239932.
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    54. Milhous WK. Development of new drugs for chemoprophylaxis of malaria. Med Trop (Mars). 2001; 61(1):48-50. PMID: 11584654.
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    55. Sanchez JL, Bendet I, Grogl M, Lima JB, Pang LW, Guimaraes MF, Guedes CM, Milhous WK, Green MD, Todd GD. Malaria in Brazilian military personnel deployed to Angola. J Travel Med. 2000 Sep-Oct; 7(5):275-82. PMID: 11231212.
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    56. Opsenica D, Pocsfalvi G, Juranic Z, Tinant B, Declercq JP, Kyle DE, Milhous WK, Solaja BA. Cholic acid derivatives as 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane carriers: structure and antimalarial and antiproliferative activity. J Med Chem. 2000 Aug 24; 43(17):3274-82. PMID: 10966746.
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    57. Vennerstrom JL, Dong Y, Andersen SL, Ager AL, Fu H, Miller RE, Wesche DL, Kyle DE, Gerena L, Walters SM, Wood JK, Edwards G, Holme AD, McLean WG, Milhous WK. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of sixteen dispiro-1,2,4, 5-tetraoxanes: alkyl-substituted 7,8,15,16-tetraoxadispiro[5.2.5. 2]hexadecanes. J Med Chem. 2000 Jul 13; 43(14):2753-8. PMID: 10893313.
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    58. McCullough KJ, Wood JK, Bhattacharjee AK, Dong Y, Kyle DE, Milhous WK, Vennerstrom JL. Methyl-substituted dispiro-1,2,4,5-tetraoxanes: correlations of structural studies with antimalarial activity. J Med Chem. 2000 Mar 23; 43(6):1246-9. PMID: 10737758.
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    59. Walsh DS, Looareesuwan S, Wilairatana P, Heppner DG, Tang DB, Brewer TG, Chokejindachai W, Viriyavejakul P, Kyle DE, Milhous WK, Schuster BG, Horton J, Braitman DJ, Brueckner RP. Randomized dose-ranging study of the safety and efficacy of WR 238605 (Tafenoquine) in the prevention of relapse of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Thailand. J Infect Dis. 1999 Oct; 180(4):1282-7. PMID: 10479159.
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    60. Vennerstrom JL, Nuzum EO, Miller RE, Dorn A, Gerena L, Dande PA, Ellis WY, Ridley RG, Milhous WK. 8-Aminoquinolines active against blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro inhibit hematin polymerization. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Mar; 43(3):598-602. PMID: 10049273; PMCID: PMC89166.
    61. Vennerstrom JL, Ager AL, Dorn A, Andersen SL, Gerena L, Ridley RG, Milhous WK. Bisquinolines. 2. Antimalarial N,N-bis(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)heteroalkanediamines. J Med Chem. 1998 Oct 22; 41(22):4360-4. PMID: 9784111.
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    62. Roberts F, Roberts CW, Johnson JJ, Kyle DE, Krell T, Coggins JR, Coombs GH, Milhous WK, Tzipori S, Ferguson DJ, Chakrabarti D, McLeod R. Evidence for the shikimate pathway in apicomplexan parasites. Nature. 1998 Jun 25; 393(6687):801-5. PMID: 9655396.
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    63. Zalis MG, Pang L, Silveira MS, Milhous WK, Wirth DF. Characterization of Plasmodium falciparum isolated from the Amazon region of Brazil: evidence for quinine resistance. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998 May; 58(5):630-7. PMID: 9598453.
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    64. Oduola AM, Sowunmi A, Milhous WK, Brewer TG, Kyle DE, Gerena L, Rossan RN, Salako LA, Schuster BG. In vitro and in vivo reversal of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum with promethazine. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998 May; 58(5):625-9. PMID: 9598452.
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    65. Oduola AM, Omitowoju GO, Sowunmi A, Makler MT, Falade CO, Kyle DE, Fehintola FA, Ogundahunsi OA, Piper RC, Schuster BG, Milhous WK. Plasmodium falciparum: evaluation of lactate dehydrogenase in monitoring therapeutic responses to standard antimalarial drugs in Nigeria. Exp Parasitol. 1997 Nov; 87(3):283-9. PMID: 9371095.
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    66. de Alencar FE, Cerutti C, Durlacher RR, Boulos M, Alves FP, Milhous W, Pang LW. Atovaquone and proguanil for the treatment of malaria in Brazil. J Infect Dis. 1997 Jun; 175(6):1544-7. PMID: 9180204.
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    67. Grigorov M, Weber J, Tronchet JM, Jefford CW, Milhous WK, Maric D. A QSAR study of the antimalarial activity of some synthetic 1,2,4-trioxanes. J Chem Inf Comput Sci. 1997 Jan-Feb; 37(1):124-30. PMID: 9025258.
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    68. Avery MA, Bonk JD, Chong WK, Mehrotra S, Miller R, Milhous W, Goins DK, Venkatesan S, Wyandt C, Khan I, et al. Structure-activity relationships of the antimalarial agent artemisinin. 2. Effect of heteroatom substitution at O-11: synthesis and bioassay of N-alkyl-11-aza-9-desmethylartemisinins. J Med Chem. 1995 Dec 22; 38(26):5038-44. PMID: 8544180.
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    69. Pang L, Alencar FE, Cerutti C, Milhous WK, Andrade AL, Oliveira R, Kanesa-Thasan N, MaCarthy PO, Hoke CH. Short report: hepatitis E infection in the Brazilian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995 Apr; 52(4):347-8. PMID: 7741175.
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    70. Cooper RD, Milhous WK, Rieckmann KH. The efficacy of WR238605 against the blood stages of a chloroquine resistant strain of Plasmodium vivax. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1994 Nov-Dec; 88(6):691-2. PMID: 7886774.
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    71. Holfels E, McAuley J, Mack D, Milhous WK, McLeod R. In vitro effects of artemisinin ether, cycloguanil hydrochloride (alone and in combination with sulfadiazine), quinine sulfate, mefloquine, primaquine phosphate, trifluoperazine hydrochloride, and verapamil on Toxoplasma gondii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994 Jun; 38(6):1392-6. PMID: 8092843; PMCID: PMC188216.
    72. Coleman RE, Nath AK, Schneider I, Song GH, Klein TA, Milhous WK. Prevention of sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum and P. berghei in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes by transmission-blocking antimalarials. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994 May; 50(5):646-53. PMID: 8203716.
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    73. Posner GH, Oh CH, Wang D, Gerena L, Milhous WK, Meshnick SR, Asawamahasadka W. Mechanism-based design, synthesis, and in vitro antimalarial testing of new 4-methylated trioxanes structurally related to artemisinin: the importance of a carbon-centered radical for antimalarial activity. J Med Chem. 1994 Apr 29; 37(9):1256-8. PMID: 8176702.
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    74. Basco LK, Andersen SL, Milhous WK, Le Bras J, Vennerstrom JL. In vitro activity of bisquinoline WR268,668 against African clones and isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994 Feb; 50(2):200-5. PMID: 8116813.
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    75. Avery MA, Gao F, Chong WK, Mehrotra S, Milhous WK. Structure-activity relationships of the antimalarial agent artemisinin. 1. Synthesis and comparative molecular field analysis of C-9 analogs of artemisinin and 10-deoxoartemisinin. J Med Chem. 1993 Dec 24; 36(26):4264-75. PMID: 8277509.
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    76. Peters W, Robinson BL, Milhous WK. The chemotherapy of rodent malaria. LI. Studies on a new 8-aminoquinoline, WR 238,605. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1993 Dec; 87(6):547-52. PMID: 8122915.
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    77. Cabral JA, McChesney JD, Milhous WK. A new antimalarial quassinoid from Simaba guianensis. J Nat Prod. 1993 Nov; 56(11):1954-61. PMID: 8289064.
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    78. Corcoran KD, Hansukjariya P, Sattabongkot J, Ngampochjana M, Edstein MD, Smith CD, Shanks GD, Milhous WK. Causal prophylactic and radical curative activity of WR182393 (a guanylhydrazone) against Plasmodium cynomolgi in Macaca mulatta. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Oct; 49(4):473-7. PMID: 8214277.
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    79. Maeno Y, Toyoshima T, Fujioka H, Ito Y, Meshnick SR, Benakis A, Milhous WK, Aikawa M. Morphologic effects of artemisinin in Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Oct; 49(4):485-91. PMID: 8214279.
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    80. Canfield CJ, Milhous WK, Ager AL, Rossan RN, Sweeney TR, Lewis NJ, Jacobus DP. PS-15: a potent, orally active antimalarial from a new class of folic acid antagonists. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Jul; 49(1):121-6. PMID: 8352384.
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    81. De D, Bhaduri AP, Milhous WK. A novel pyrrolidonoalkaneamine (WR268954) that modulates chloroquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Jul; 49(1):113-20. PMID: 8352383.
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    82. Karle JM, Olmeda R, Gerena L, Milhous WK. Plasmodium falciparum: role of absolute stereochemistry in the antimalarial activity of synthetic amino alcohol antimalarial agents. Exp Parasitol. 1993 Jun; 76(4):345-51. PMID: 8513873.
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    83. Schuster BG, Milhous WK. Reduced resources applied to antimalarial drug development. Parasitol Today. 1993 May; 9(5):167-8. PMID: 15463745.
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    84. Shmuklarsky MJ, Klayman DL, Milhous WK, Kyle DE, Rossan RN, Ager AL, Tang DB, Heiffer MH, Canfield CJ, Schuster BG. Comparison of beta-artemether and beta-arteether against malaria parasites in vitro and in vivo. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Mar; 48(3):377-84. PMID: 8470775.
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    85. Kyle DE, Milhous WK, Rossan RN. Reversal of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine in Panamanian Aotus monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Jan; 48(1):126-33. PMID: 8427381.
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    86. Wilson CM, Volkman SK, Thaithong S, Martin RK, Kyle DE, Milhous WK, Wirth DF. Amplification of pfmdr 1 associated with mefloquine and halofantrine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum from Thailand. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1993 Jan; 57(1):151-60. PMID: 8426608.
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    87. Oduola AM, Omitowoju GO, Gerena L, Kyle DE, Milhous WK, Sowunmi A, Salako LA. Reversal of mefloquine resistance with penfluridol in isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from south-west Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Jan-Feb; 87(1):81-3. PMID: 8465407.
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    88. Gerena L, Bass GT, Kyle DE, Oduola AM, Milhous WK, Martin RK. Fluoxetine hydrochloride enhances in vitro susceptibility to chloroquine in resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992 Dec; 36(12):2761-5. PMID: 1482144; PMCID: PMC245541.
    89. Vennerstrom JL, Fu HN, Ellis WY, Ager AL, Wood JK, Andersen SL, Gerena L, Milhous WK. Dispiro-1,2,4,5-tetraoxanes: a new class of antimalarial peroxides. J Med Chem. 1992 Aug 07; 35(16):3023-7. PMID: 1501229.
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    90. Karle JM, Karle IL, Gerena L, Milhous WK. Stereochemical evaluation of the relative activities of the cinchona alkaloids against Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992 Jul; 36(7):1538-44. PMID: 1510452; PMCID: PMC191617.
    91. Posner GH, Oh CH, Gerena L, Milhous WK. Extraordinarily potent antimalarial compounds: new, structurally simple, easily synthesized, tricyclic 1,2,4-trioxanes. J Med Chem. 1992 Jun 26; 35(13):2459-67. PMID: 1619620.
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    92. Vennerstrom JL, Ellis WY, Ager AL, Andersen SL, Gerena L, Milhous WK. Bisquinolines. 1. N,N-bis(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)alkanediamines with potential against chloroquine-resistant malaria. J Med Chem. 1992 May 29; 35(11):2129-34. PMID: 1597862.
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    93. Queener SF, Dean RA, Bartlett MS, Milhous WK, Berman JD, Ellis WY, Smith JW. Efficacy of intermittent dosage of 8-aminoquinolines for therapy or prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in rats. J Infect Dis. 1992 Apr; 165(4):764-8. PMID: 1532406.
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    94. Oduola AM, Sowunmi A, Milhous WK, Kyle DE, Martin RK, Walker O, Salako LA. Innate resistance to new antimalarial drugs in Plasmodium falciparum from Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Mar-Apr; 86(2):123-6. PMID: 1440764.
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    95. Coleman RE, Clavin AM, Milhous WK. Gametocytocidal and sporontocidal activity of antimalarials against Plasmodium berghei ANKA in ICR Mice and Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Feb; 46(2):169-82. PMID: 1539752.
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    96. Grogl M, Martin RK, Oduola AM, Milhous WK, Kyle DE. Characteristics of multidrug resistance in Plasmodium and Leishmania: detection of P-glycoprotein-like components. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1991 Jul; 45(1):98-111. PMID: 1678253.
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    97. Childs GE, Bourdeau EF, Wimonwattratee T, Pang L, Milhous WK. In vitro and clinical correlates of mefloquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in eastern Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1991 May; 44(5):553-9. PMID: 2063958.
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    98. Li J, Zhu JD, Appiah A, McCutchan TF, Long GW, Milhous WK, Hollingdale MR. Plasmodium berghei: quantitation of in vitro effects of antimalarial drugs on exoerythrocytic development by a ribosomal RNA probe. Exp Parasitol. 1991 May; 72(4):450-8. PMID: 2026219.
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    99. Bartlett MS, Queener SF, Tidwell RR, Milhous WK, Berman JD, Ellis WY, Smith JW. 8-Aminoquinolines from Walter Reed Army Institute for Research for treatment and prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in rat models. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 Feb; 35(2):277-82. PMID: 2024961; PMCID: PMC244991.
    100. Willet GP, Milhous WK, Gerena L, Oduola AM. Mixed population dynamics in human malaria parasite cultures. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1991 Jan-Feb; 85(1):33-4. PMID: 2068751.
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    101. Kyle DE, Oduola AM, Martin SK, Milhous WK. Plasmodium falciparum: modulation by calcium antagonists of resistance to chloroquine, desethylchloroquine, quinine, and quinidine in vitro. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990 Jul-Aug; 84(4):474-8. PMID: 2091331.
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    102. Jung M, Li X, Bustos DA, elSohly HN, McChesney JD, Milhous WK. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of (+)-deoxoartemisinin. J Med Chem. 1990 May; 33(5):1516-8. PMID: 2329574.
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    103. Peterson DS, Milhous WK, Wellems TE. Molecular basis of differential resistance to cycloguanil and pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Apr; 87(8):3018-22. PMID: 2183222; PMCID: PMC53825.
    104. Rathod PK, Khatri A, Hubbert T, Milhous WK. Selective activity of 5-fluoroorotic acid against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 Jul; 33(7):1090-4. PMID: 2675756; PMCID: PMC176067.
    105. Oduola AM, Moyou-Somo RS, Kyle DE, Martin SK, Gerena L, Milhous WK. Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum in indigenous residents of Cameroon. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1989 May-Jun; 83(3):308-10. PMID: 2694461.
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    106. Kelley PW, Takafuji ET, Wiener H, Milhous W, Miller R, Thompson NJ, Schantz P, Miller RN. An outbreak of hookworm infection associated with military operations in Grenada. Mil Med. 1989 Feb; 154(2):55-9. PMID: 2494577.
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    107. Childs GE, Boudreau EF, Milhous WK, Wimonwattratee T, Pooyindee N, Pang L, Davidson DE. A comparison of the in vitro activities of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine against isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989 Jan; 40(1):7-11. PMID: 2644858.
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    108. Milhous WK, Gerena L, Kyle DE, Oduola AM. In vitro strategies for circumventing antimalarial drug resistance. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1989; 313:61-72. PMID: 2675118.
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    109. Scheibel LW, Colombani PM, Hess AD, Aikawa M, Atkinson CT, Igarashi I, Matsumoto Y, Milhous WK. Calcium/calmodulin functions in P. falciparum in vitro--implications for antiprotozoal drug design. Prog Clin Parasitol. 1989; 1:21-56. PMID: 2491694.
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    110. Bitonti AJ, Sjoerdsma A, McCann PP, Kyle DE, Oduola AM, Rossan RN, Milhous WK, Davidson DE. Reversal of chloroquine resistance in malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum by desipramine. Science. 1988 Dec 02; 242(4883):1301-3. PMID: 3057629.
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    111. Oduola AM, Milhous WK, Weatherly NF, Bowdre JH, Desjardins RE. Plasmodium falciparum: induction of resistance to mefloquine in cloned strains by continuous drug exposure in vitro. Exp Parasitol. 1988 Dec; 67(2):354-60. PMID: 3056740.
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    112. Jacobs GH, Oduola AM, Kyle DE, Milhous WK, Martin SK, Aikawa M. Ultrastructural study of the effects of chloroquine and verapamil on Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988 Jul; 39(1):15-20. PMID: 3041853.
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    113. Brossi A, Venugopalan B, Dominguez Gerpe L, Yeh HJ, Flippen-Anderson JL, Buchs P, Luo XD, Milhous W, Peters W. Arteether, a new antimalarial drug: synthesis and antimalarial properties. J Med Chem. 1988 Mar; 31(3):645-50. PMID: 3279208.
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    114. Childs GE, Häusler B, Milhous W, Chen C, Wimonwattrawatee T, Pooyindee N, Boudreau EF. In vitro activity of pyronaridine against field isolates and reference clones of Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988 Jan; 38(1):24-9. PMID: 3277460.
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    115. Oduola AM, Milhous WK, Salako LA, Walker O, Desjardins RE. Reduced in-vitro susceptibility to mefloquine in West African isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Lancet. 1987 Dec 05; 2(8571):1304-5. PMID: 2890904.
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    116. Krogstad DJ, Gluzman IY, Kyle DE, Oduola AM, Martin SK, Milhous WK, Schlesinger PH. Efflux of chloroquine from Plasmodium falciparum: mechanism of chloroquine resistance. Science. 1987 Nov 27; 238(4831):1283-5. PMID: 3317830.
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    117. Lin AJ, Klayman DL, Milhous WK. Antimalarial activity of new water-soluble dihydroartemisinin derivatives. J Med Chem. 1987 Nov; 30(11):2147-50. PMID: 3669021.
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    118. Scheibel LW, Colombani PM, Hess AD, Aikawa M, Atkinson CT, Milhous WK. Calcium and calmodulin antagonists inhibit human malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum): implications for drug design. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Oct; 84(20):7310-4. PMID: 3313391; PMCID: PMC299282.
    119. Martin SK, Oduola AM, Milhous WK. Reversal of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum by verapamil. Science. 1987 Feb 20; 235(4791):899-901. PMID: 3544220.
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    120. Pierce PF, Milhous WK, Campbell CC. Clinical and laboratory characterization of a chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain acquired in the Central African Republic. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987 Jan; 36(1):1-2. PMID: 3544889.
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    121. Jacobs GH, Aikawa M, Milhous WK, Rabbege JR. An ultrastructural study of the effects of mefloquine on malaria parasites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987 Jan; 36(1):9-14. PMID: 3544894.
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    122. Campbell CC, Collins WE, Milhous WK, Roberts JM, Armstead A. Adaptation of the Indochina I/CDC strain of Plasmodium falciparum to the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1986 May; 35(3):472-5. PMID: 3518503.
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    123. Milhous WK, Weatherly NF, Bowdre JH, Desjardins RE. In vitro activities of and mechanisms of resistance to antifol antimalarial drugs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 Apr; 27(4):525-30. PMID: 3890727; PMCID: PMC180089.
    124. Klayman DL, Lin AJ, Acton N, Scovill JP, Hoch JM, Milhous WK, Theoharides AD, Dobek AS. Isolation of artemisinin (qinghaosu) from Artemisia annua growing in the United States. J Nat Prod. 1984 Jul-Aug; 47(4):715-7. PMID: 6387056.
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