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Professor Paul Michels

TitleVisiting Professor
InstitutionThe University of Edinburgh
DepartmentSchool of Biological Sciences, The King's Buildings, Ashworth Building
AddressCharlotte Auerbach Road
Edinburgh EH9 3FL
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Positions:
    Senior Research Fellow, Institute for Structural and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh
    Invited Professor, Departamento de Biología, Universidad de los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela

    Qualifications:
    BSc, Biology, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1968
    MSc, Biology (animal physiology, biochemistry, molecular cytology), University of Amsterdam, cum laude, 1974
    PhD, Science (biochemistry, microbiology), University of Groningen, the Netherlands, 1978

    Academic career:
    Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Dundee, UK (1979-1980)
    Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of Amsterdam/the Netherlands Cancer Institute, the Netherlands (1980-1983)
    Assistant Staff Member of the ‘de Duve Institute’ (previously called ‘International Institute of Cellular and Molecular Pathology’) (1983 – 1986)
    Associate Staff Member of the ‘de Duve Institute’ (1986 – 1988)
    Staff Member of the ‘de Duve Institute’ (1988 – 2011)
    Invited Professor ("Chargé de cours invité"), Département de biochimie et biologie cellulaire, Université catholique de Louvain (1996 – 1998)
    Professor ("Chargé de cours à temps partiel"), Département de biochimie et biologie cellulaire, Université catholique de Louvain (1998 – 2007)
    Professor ("Professeur à temps partiel"), Département de biochimie et biologie cellulaire, Université catholique de Louvain (2007 - 2011)
    Emeritus Professor, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium (2011 – present)
    Invited Professor, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium (2011 – 2012)
    Visiting Professor, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, UK (2007 – 2013)
    Invited Professor, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes’, Mérida, Venezuela (2012 – present)
    Senior Research Fellow, Institute for Structural and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh, UK (2013 – present)

    Funding:
    During my period in the Duve Institute/at the Université catholique de Louvain, I have assured funds for the research of our ‘Research Unit for Tropical Diseases’, during a period of 25 years, from national and international organizations. Moreover, during more than 10 years, I have been the coordinator of international consortia for research on drug discovery for tropical parasitic diseases, supported by grants of the European Commission.
    At the University of Edinburgh, I have been co-applicant, with Prof. M. Walkinshaw, in a successful recent application for a Wellcome Trust Seeding Drug Discovery grant of £ 2.5M for the development of leads for anti-trypanosome drugs based on glycolytic enzyme inhibitors.

    Honours:
    Since 1992 I have been a member of the editorial boards of a variety of journals in biochemistry/molecular biology/parasitology; since 1990, a member of scientific review committees for Belgian and international organizations for providing financial support for research, fellowships and workshops; since 2002, a member (and chairman) of several national and international peer review committees for undergraduate and graduate curricula and for research in biological sciences at different (consortia of) universities in Belgium, the Netherlands and France. I have been a mail/ad hoc reviewer of research proposals, on behalf of various national and international research funding organizations.
    Since 1982, I have been Invited speaker at many national and international scientific meetings, and at laboratories abroad, and an invited chairman at several international meetings.

    Postgraduate teaching experience:
    I have been supervisor of 15 graduate and about 15 postdoctoral fellows at the "Université catholique de Louvain", from 1984 – 2012, and I act currently as co-supervisor of graduate students at the University of Edinburgh (UK) and the “Universidad de los Andes” (Venezuela).
    Currently, I am organizer and lecturer (together with Prof. W.G.J. Hol, University of Washington, Seattle, USA) of postgraduate Workshops on ‘Drug Discovery on Neglected Tropical Infectious Diseases’ in institutions in developing countries: (1) November 2012, Mérida, Venezuela; (2) January 2013, New Delhi, India; (3) May 2013, Pathum Tani, Thailand; (4) October 2013, São Carlos, Brazil; (5) March 2014, Pune, India. (6) November 2014, Montevideo, Uruguay; (7) February 2015, Chennai, India; (8) November 2015, São Carlos, Brazil; (9) February 2016, Hyderabad, India.
    I have been external examiner of PhD students at various universities in Belgium, the Netherlands, France, United Kingdom, Ireland, Czech Republic and Australia.

    Publications:
    I am author of over 240 scientific publications in peer-reviewed international periodicals, and of several review papers prepared on invitation. H-index: 46.
    I have been ranked 21st in the citation index 2007-2013 for European researchers in parasitology (‘Lab Times’ May 2015).

    (updated September 2016)


    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Brennand A, Rico E, Rigden DJ, Van Der Smissen P, Courtoy PJ, Michels PA. ATG24 Represses Autophagy and Differentiation and Is Essential for Homeostasy of the Flagellar Pocket in Trypanosoma brucei. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0130365. PMID: 26090847; PMCID: PMC4474607.
    2. Passalacqua TG, Dutra LA, de Almeida L, Velásquez AM, Torres FA, Yamasaki PR, dos Santos MB, Regasini LO, Michels PA, Bolzani Vda S, Graminha MA. Synthesis and evaluation of novel prenylated chalcone derivatives as anti-leishmanial and anti-trypanosomal compounds. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2015 Aug 15; 25(16):3342-5. PMID: 26055530.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Barros-Álvarez X, Cáceres AJ, Ruiz MT, Michels PA, Concepción JL, Quiñones W. The glycosomal-membrane associated phosphoglycerate kinase isoenzyme A plays a role in sustaining the glucose flux in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2015 Mar-Apr; 200(1-2):5-8. PMID: 25917939.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Haanstra JR, Bakker BM, Michels PA. In or out? On the tightness of glycosomal compartmentalization of metabolites and enzymes in Trypanosoma brucei. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2014 Nov; 198(1):18-28. PMID: 25476771.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Szöör B, Haanstra JR, Gualdrón-López M, Michels PA. Evolution, dynamics and specialized functions of glycosomes in metabolism and development of trypanosomatids. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2014 Dec; 22:79-87. PMID: 25460800.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Balogun EO, Inaoka DK, Shiba T, Kido Y, Tsuge C, Nara T, Aoki T, Honma T, Tanaka A, Inoue M, Matsuoka S, Michels PA, Kita K, Harada S. Molecular basis for the reverse reaction of African human trypanosomes glycerol kinase. Mol Microbiol. 2014 Dec; 94(6):1315-29. PMID: 25315291.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Shameer S, Logan-Klumpler FJ, Vinson F, Cottret L, Merlet B, Achcar F, Boshart M, Berriman M, Breitling R, Bringaud F, Bütikofer P, Cattanach AM, Bannerman-Chukualim B, Creek DJ, Crouch K, de Koning HP, Denise H, Ebikeme C, Fairlamb AH, Ferguson MA, Ginger ML, Hertz-Fowler C, Kerkhoven EJ, Mäser P, Michels PA, Nayak A, Nes DW, Nolan DP, Olsen C, Silva-Franco F, Smith TK, Taylor MC, Tielens AG, Urbaniak MD, van Hellemond JJ, Vincent IM, Wilkinson SR, Wyllie S, Opperdoes FR, Barrett MP, Jourdan F. TrypanoCyc: a community-led biochemical pathways database for Trypanosoma brucei. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015 Jan; 43(Database issue):D637-44. PMID: 25300491; PMCID: PMC4384016.
    8. Morgan HP, Zhong W, McNae IW, Michels PA, Fothergill-Gilmore LA, Walkinshaw MD. Structures of pyruvate kinases display evolutionarily divergent allosteric strategies. R Soc Open Sci. 2014 Sep; 1(1):140120. PMID: 26064527; PMCID: PMC4448766.
    9. Blackburn EA, Fuad FA, Morgan HP, Nowicki MW, Wear MA, Michels PA, Fothergill-Gilmore LA, Walkinshaw MD. Trypanosomatid phosphoglycerate mutases have multiple conformational and oligomeric states. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Jul 25; 450(2):936-41. PMID: 24984149.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Barros-Álvarez X, Cáceres AJ, Michels PA, Concepción JL, Quiñones W. The phosphoglycerate kinase isoenzymes have distinct roles in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in Trypanosoma cruzi. Exp Parasitol. 2014 Aug; 143:39-47. PMID: 24858924.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Anbazhagan P, Harijan RK, Kiema TR, Janardan N, Murthy MR, Michels PA, Juffer AH, Wierenga RK. Phylogenetic relationships and classification of thiolases and thiolase-like proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2014 Jul; 94(4):405-12. PMID: 24825023.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Gómez-Arreaza A, Acosta H, Quiñones W, Concepción JL, Michels PA, Avilán L. Extracellular functions of glycolytic enzymes of parasites: unpredicted use of ancient proteins. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2014 Feb; 193(2):75-81. PMID: 24602601.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Zhong W, Morgan HP, Nowicki MW, McNae IW, Yuan M, Bella J, Michels PA, Fothergill-Gilmore LA, Walkinshaw MD. Pyruvate kinases have an intrinsic and conserved decarboxylase activity. Biochem J. 2014 Mar 01; 458(2):301-11. PMID: 24328825.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Belluti F, Uliassi E, Veronesi G, Bergamini C, Kaiser M, Brun R, Viola A, Fato R, Michels PA, Krauth-Siegel RL, Cavalli A, Bolognesi ML. Toward the development of dual-targeted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/trypanothione reductase inhibitors against Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi. ChemMedChem. 2014 Feb; 9(2):371-82. PMID: 24403089.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Barros-Alvarez X, Gualdrón-López M, Acosta H, Cáceres AJ, Graminha MA, Michels PA, Concepción JL, Quiñones W. Glycosomal targets for anti-trypanosomatid drug discovery. Curr Med Chem. 2014; 21(15):1679-706. PMID: 23834165.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Brimacombe KR, Walsh MJ, Liu L, Vásquez-Valdivieso MG, Morgan HP, McNae I, Fothergill-Gilmore LA, Michels PA, Auld DS, Simeonov A, Walkinshaw MD, Shen M, Boxer MB. Identification of ML251, a Potent Inhibitor of T. brucei and T. cruzi Phosphofructokinase. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2014 Jan 09; 5(1):12-7. PMID: 24900769; PMCID: PMC4027769.
    17. Harijan RK, Kiema TR, Karjalainen MP, Janardan N, Murthy MR, Weiss MS, Michels PA, Wierenga RK. Crystal structures of SCP2-thiolases of Trypanosomatidae, human pathogens causing widespread tropical diseases: the importance for catalysis of the cysteine of the unique HDCF loop. Biochem J. 2013 Oct 01; 455(1):119-30. PMID: 23909465.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Gualdrón-López M, Chevalier N, Van Der Smissen P, Courtoy PJ, Rigden DJ, Michels PA. Ubiquitination of the glycosomal matrix protein receptor PEX5 in Trypanosoma brucei by PEX4 displays novel features. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Dec; 1833(12):3076-92. PMID: 23994617.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Zhong W, Morgan HP, McNae IW, Michels PA, Fothergill-Gilmore LA, Walkinshaw MD. `In crystallo' substrate binding triggers major domain movements and reveals magnesium as a co-activator of Trypanosoma brucei pyruvate kinase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2013 Sep; 69(Pt 9):1768-79. PMID: 23999300.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Allmann S, Morand P, Ebikeme C, Gales L, Biran M, Hubert J, Brennand A, Mazet M, Franconi JM, Michels PA, Portais JC, Boshart M, Bringaud F. Cytosolic NADPH homeostasis in glucose-starved procyclic Trypanosoma brucei relies on malic enzyme and the pentose phosphate pathway fed by gluconeogenic flux. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 21; 288(25):18494-505. PMID: 23665470; PMCID: PMC3689991.
    21. Balogun EO, Inaoka DK, Shiba T, Kido Y, Nara T, Aoki T, Honma T, Tanaka A, Inoue M, Matsuoka S, Michels PA, Harada S, Kita K. Biochemical characterization of highly active Trypanosoma brucei gambiense glycerol kinase, a promising drug target. J Biochem. 2013 Jul; 154(1):77-84. PMID: 23620597.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Pieretti S, Haanstra JR, Mazet M, Perozzo R, Bergamini C, Prati F, Fato R, Lenaz G, Capranico G, Brun R, Bakker BM, Michels PA, Scapozza L, Bolognesi ML, Cavalli A. Naphthoquinone derivatives exert their antitrypanosomal activity via a multi-target mechanism. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013; 7(1):e2012. PMID: 23350008; PMCID: PMC3547856.
    23. Bero J, Beaufay C, Hannaert V, Hérent MF, Michels PA, Quetin-Leclercq J. Antitrypanosomal compounds from the essential oil and extracts of Keetia leucantha leaves with inhibitor activity on Trypanosoma brucei glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Phytomedicine. 2013 Feb 15; 20(3-4):270-4. PMID: 23312849.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Gualdrón-López M, Michels PA. Processing of the glycosomal matrix-protein import receptor PEX5 of Trypanosoma brucei. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Feb 01; 431(1):98-103. PMID: 23266609.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Guerrieri D, Ferrari S, Costi MP, Michels PA. Biochemical effects of riluzole on Leishmania parasites. Exp Parasitol. 2013 Mar; 133(3):250-4. PMID: 23206955.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Morgan HP, Walsh MJ, Blackburn EA, Wear MA, Boxer MB, Shen M, Veith H, McNae IW, Nowicki MW, Michels PA, Auld DS, Fothergill-Gilmore LA, Walkinshaw MD. A new family of covalent inhibitors block nucleotide binding to the active site of pyruvate kinase. Biochem J. 2012 Nov 15; 448(1):67-72. PMID: 22906073; PMCID: PMC3498827.
    27. Corona P, Gibellini F, Cavalli A, Saxena P, Carta A, Loriga M, Luciani R, Paglietti G, Guerrieri D, Nerini E, Gupta S, Hannaert V, Michels PA, Ferrari S, Costi PM. Structure-based selectivity optimization of piperidine-pteridine derivatives as potent Leishmania pteridine reductase inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2012 Oct 11; 55(19):8318-29. PMID: 22946585.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Gualdrón-López M, Brennand A, Avilán L, Michels PA. Translocation of solutes and proteins across the glycosomal membrane of trypanosomes; possibilities and limitations for targeting with trypanocidal drugs. Parasitology. 2013 Jan; 140(1):1-20. PMID: 22914253.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Brennand A, Rico E, Michels PA. Autophagy in trypanosomatids. Cells. 2012 Jul 27; 1(3):346-71. PMID: 24710480; PMCID: PMC3901119.
    30. Verplaetse E, Gualdrón-López M, Chevalier N, Michels PA. Studies on the organization of the docking complex involved in matrix protein import into glycosomes of Trypanosoma brucei. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Aug 10; 424(4):781-5. PMID: 22809509.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Brennand A, Rigden DJ, Michels PA. Trypanosomes contain two highly different isoforms of peroxin PEX13 involved in glycosome biogenesis. FEBS Lett. 2012 Jun 21; 586(13):1765-71. PMID: 22641036.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Feliciano PR, Gupta S, Dyszy F, Dias-Baruffi M, Costa-Filho AJ, Michels PA, Nonato MC. Fumarate hydratase isoforms of Leishmania major: subcellular localization, structural and kinetic properties. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012 Jul-Aug; 51(1-2):25-31. PMID: 22569531.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Mercaldi GF, Pereira HM, Cordeiro AT, Michels PA, Thiemann OH. Structural role of the active-site metal in the conformation of Trypanosoma brucei phosphoglycerate mutase. FEBS J. 2012 Jun; 279(11):2012-21. PMID: 22458781.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Gualdron-López M, Vapola MH, Miinalainen IJ, Hiltunen JK, Michels PA, Antonenkov VD. Channel-forming activities in the glycosomal fraction from the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e34530. PMID: 22506025; PMCID: PMC3323538.
    35. Klionsky DJ, Abdalla FC, Abeliovich H, Abraham RT, Acevedo-Arozena A, Adeli K, Agholme L, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Aguirre-Ghiso JA, Ahn HJ, Ait-Mohamed O, Ait-Si-Ali S, Akematsu T, Akira S, Al-Younes HM, Al-Zeer MA, Albert ML, Albin RL, Alegre-Abarrategui J, Aleo MF, Alirezaei M, Almasan A, Almonte-Becerril M, Amano A, Amaravadi R, Amarnath S, Amer AO, Andrieu-Abadie N, Anantharam V, Ann DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Aoki H, Apostolova N, Arancia G, Aris JP, Asanuma K, Asare NY, Ashida H, Askanas V, Askew DS, Auberger P, Baba M, Backues SK, Baehrecke EH, Bahr BA, Bai XY, Bailly Y, Baiocchi R, Baldini G, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Bamber BA, Bampton ET, Bánhegyi G, Bartholomew CR, Bassham DC, Bast RC, Batoko H, Bay BH, Beau I, Béchet DM, Begley TJ, Behl C, Behrends C, Bekri S, Bellaire B, Bendall LJ, Benetti L, Berliocchi L, Bernardi H, Bernassola F, Besteiro S, Bhatia-Kissova I, Bi X, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Blum JS, Boise LH, Bonaldo P, Boone DL, Bornhauser BC, Bortoluci KR, Bossis I, Bost F, Bourquin JP, Boya P, Boyer-Guittaut M, Bozhkov PV, Brady NR, Brancolini C, Brech A, Brenman JE, Brennand A, Bresnick EH, Brest P, Bridges D, Bristol ML, Brookes PS, Brown EJ, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Brunk UT, Bulman DE, Bultman SJ, Bultynck G, Burbulla LF, Bursch W, Butchar JP, Buzgariu W, Bydlowski SP, Cadwell K, Cahová M, Cai D, Cai J, Cai Q, Calabretta B, Calvo-Garrido J, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campos-Salinas J, Candi E, Cao L, Caplan AB, Carding SR, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carlin CR, Carmignac V, Carneiro LA, Carra S, Caruso RA, Casari G, Casas C, Castino R, Cebollero E, Cecconi F, Celli J, Chaachouay H, Chae HJ, Chai CY, Chan DC, Chan EY, Chang RC, Che CM, Chen CC, Chen GC, Chen GQ, Chen M, Chen Q, Chen SS, Chen W, Chen X, Chen X, Chen X, Chen YG, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen YJ, Chen Z, Cheng A, Cheng CH, Cheng Y, Cheong H, Cheong JH, Cherry S, Chess-Williams R, Cheung ZH, Chevet E, Chiang HL, Chiarelli R, Chiba T, Chin LS, Chiou SH, Chisari FV, Cho CH, Cho DH, Choi AM, Choi D, Choi KS, Choi ME, Chouaib S, Choubey D, Choubey V, Chu CT, Chuang TH, Chueh SH, Chun T, Chwae YJ, Chye ML, Ciarcia R, Ciriolo MR, Clague MJ, Clark RS, Clarke PG, Clarke R, Codogno P, Coller HA, Colombo MI, Comincini S, Condello M, Condorelli F, Cookson MR, Coombs GH, Coppens I, Corbalan R, Cossart P, Costelli P, Costes S, Coto-Montes A, Couve E, Coxon FP, Cregg JM, Crespo JL, Cronjé MJ, Cuervo AM, Cullen JJ, Czaja MJ, D'Amelio M, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Davids LM, Davies FE, De Felici M, de Groot JF, de Haan CA, De Martino L, De Milito A, De Tata V, Debnath J, Degterev A, Dehay B, Delbridge LM, Demarchi F, Deng YZ, Dengjel J, Dent P, Denton D, Deretic V, Desai SD, Devenish RJ, Di Gioacchino M, Di Paolo G, Di Pietro C, Díaz-Araya G, Díaz-Laviada I, Diaz-Meco MT, Diaz-Nido J, Dikic I, Dinesh-Kumar SP, Ding WX, Distelhorst CW, Diwan A, Djavaheri-Mergny M, Dokudovskaya S, Dong Z, Dorsey FC, Dosenko V, Dowling JJ, Doxsey S, Dreux M, Drew ME, Duan Q, Duchosal MA, Duff K, Dugail I, Durbeej M, Duszenko M, Edelstein CL, Edinger AL, Egea G, Eichinger L, Eissa NT, Ekmekcioglu S, El-Deiry WS, Elazar Z, Elgendy M, Ellerby LM, Eng KE, Engelbrecht AM, Engelender S, Erenpreisa J, Escalante R, Esclatine A, Eskelinen EL, Espert L, Espina V, Fan H, Fan J, Fan QW, Fan Z, Fang S, Fang Y, Fanto M, Fanzani A, Farkas T, Farré JC, Faure M, Fechheimer M, Feng CG, Feng J, Feng Q, Feng Y, Fésüs L, Feuer R, Figueiredo-Pereira ME, Fimia GM, Fingar DC, Finkbeiner S, Finkel T, Finley KD, Fiorito F, Fisher EA, Fisher PB, Flajolet M, Florez-McClure ML, Florio S, Fon EA, Fornai F, Fortunato F, Fotedar R, Fowler DH, Fox HS, Franco R, Frankel LB, Fransen M, Fuentes JM, Fueyo J, Fujii J, Fujisaki K, Fujita E, Fukuda M, Furukawa RH, Gaestel M, Gailly P, Gajewska M, Galliot B, Galy V, Ganesh S, Ganetzky B, Ganley IG, Gao FB, Gao GF, Gao J, Garcia L, Garcia-Manero G, Garcia-Marcos M, Garmyn M, Gartel AL, Gatti E, Gautel M, Gawriluk TR, Gegg ME, Geng J, Germain M, Gestwicki JE, Gewirtz DA, Ghavami S, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy. Autophagy. 2012 Apr; 8(4):445-544. PMID: 22966490; PMCID: PMC3404883.
    36. Joice AC, Lyda TL, Sayce AC, Verplaetse E, Morris MT, Michels PA, Robinson DR, Morris JC. Extra-glycosomal localisation of Trypanosoma brucei hexokinase 2. Int J Parasitol. 2012 Apr; 42(4):401-9. PMID: 22619756; PMCID: PMC3710734.
    37. Gualdrón-López M, Brennand A, Hannaert V, Quiñones W, Cáceres AJ, Bringaud F, Concepción JL, Michels PA. When, how and why glycolysis became compartmentalised in the Kinetoplastea. A new look at an ancient organelle. Int J Parasitol. 2012 Jan; 42(1):1-20. PMID: 22142562.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Fuad FA, Fothergill-Gilmore LA, Nowicki MW, Eades LJ, Morgan HP, McNae IW, Michels PA, Walkinshaw MD. Phosphoglycerate mutase from Trypanosoma brucei is hyperactivated by cobalt in vitro, but not in vivo. Metallomics. 2011 Dec; 3(12):1310-7. PMID: 21993954.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Michels PA, Avilán L. The NAD+ metabolism of Leishmania, notably the enzyme nicotinamidase involved in NAD+ salvage, offers prospects for development of anti-parasite chemotherapy. Mol Microbiol. 2011 Oct; 82(1):4-8. PMID: 21854468.
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    40. Mazet M, Harijan RK, Kiema TR, Haapalainen AM, Morand P, Morales J, Bringaud F, Wierenga RK, Michels PA. The characterization and evolutionary relationships of a trypanosomal thiolase. Int J Parasitol. 2011 Oct; 41(12):1273-83. PMID: 21907205.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Alloatti A, Gupta S, Gualdrón-López M, Nguewa PA, Altabe SG, Deumer G, Wallemacq P, Michels PA, Uttaro AD. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is an essential enzyme for the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Aug 26; 412(2):286-90. PMID: 21820408.
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    42. Morgan HP, McNae IW, Nowicki MW, Zhong W, Michels PA, Auld DS, Fothergill-Gilmore LA, Walkinshaw MD. The trypanocidal drug suramin and other trypan blue mimetics are inhibitors of pyruvate kinases and bind to the adenosine site. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 09; 286(36):31232-40. PMID: 21733839; PMCID: PMC3173065.
    43. Avilán L, Gualdrón-López M, Quiñones W, González-González L, Hannaert V, Michels PA, Concepción JL. Enolase: a key player in the metabolism and a probable virulence factor of trypanosomatid parasites-perspectives for its use as a therapeutic target. Enzyme Res. 2011; 2011:932549. PMID: 21603223; PMCID: PMC3092696.
    44. Gupta S, Igoillo-Esteve M, Michels PA, Cordeiro AT. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of trypanosomatids: characterization, target validation, and drug discovery. Mol Biol Int. 2011; 2011:135701. PMID: 22091394; PMCID: PMC3196259.
    45. Brennand A, Gualdrón-López M, Coppens I, Rigden DJ, Ginger ML, Michels PA. Autophagy in parasitic protists: unique features and drug targets. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011 Jun; 177(2):83-99. PMID: 21315770.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Duszenko M, Ginger ML, Brennand A, Gualdrón-López M, Colombo MI, Coombs GH, Coppens I, Jayabalasingham B, Langsley G, de Castro SL, Menna-Barreto R, Mottram JC, Navarro M, Rigden DJ, Romano PS, Stoka V, Turk B, Michels PA. Autophagy in protists. Autophagy. 2011 Feb; 7(2):127-58. PMID: 20962583; PMCID: PMC3039767.
    47. Gupta S, Cordeiro AT, Michels PA. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is the target for the trypanocidal action of human steroids. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011 Apr; 176(2):112-5. PMID: 21185333.
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    48. Igoillo-Esteve M, Mazet M, Deumer G, Wallemacq P, Michels PA. Glycosomal ABC transporters of Trypanosoma brucei: characterisation of their expression, topology and substrate specificity. Int J Parasitol. 2011 Mar; 41(3-4):429-38. PMID: 21163262.
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    49. Alloatti A, Gupta S, Gualdrón-López M, Igoillo-Esteve M, Nguewa PA, Deumer G, Wallemacq P, Altabe SG, Michels PA, Uttaro AD. Genetic and chemical evaluation of Trypanosoma brucei oleate desaturase as a candidate drug target. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 06; 5(12):e14239. PMID: 21151902; PMCID: PMC2997783.
    50. Ferrari S, Morandi F, Motiejunas D, Nerini E, Henrich S, Luciani R, Venturelli A, Lazzari S, Calò S, Gupta S, Hannaert V, Michels PA, Wade RC, Costi MP. Virtual screening identification of nonfolate compounds, including a CNS drug, as antiparasitic agents inhibiting pteridine reductase. J Med Chem. 2011 Jan 13; 54(1):211-21. PMID: 21126022.
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    130. Bakker BM, Walsh MC, ter Kuile BH, Mensonides FI, Michels PA, Opperdoes FR, Westerhoff HV. Contribution of glucose transport to the control of the glycolytic flux in Trypanosoma brucei. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Aug 31; 96(18):10098-103. PMID: 10468568; PMCID: PMC17848.
    131. Rigden DJ, Phillips SE, Michels PA, Fothergill-Gilmore LA. The structure of pyruvate kinase from Leishmania mexicana reveals details of the allosteric transition and unusual effector specificity. J Mol Biol. 1999 Aug 20; 291(3):615-35. PMID: 10448041.
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    132. Bakker BM, Michels PA, Opperdoes FR, Westerhoff HV. What controls glycolysis in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei? J Biol Chem. 1999 May 21; 274(21):14551-9. PMID: 10329645.
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    133. Williams JC, Zeelen JP, Neubauer G, Vriend G, Backmann J, Michels PA, Lambeir AM, Wierenga RK. Structural and mutagenesis studies of leishmania triosephosphate isomerase: a point mutation can convert a mesophilic enzyme into a superstable enzyme without losing catalytic power. Protein Eng. 1999 Mar; 12(3):243-50. PMID: 10235625.
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    134. Hannaert V, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Comparison and evolutionary analysis of the glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from different Kinetoplastida. J Mol Evol. 1998 Dec; 47(6):728-38. PMID: 9847415.
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    135. Blattner J, Helfert S, Michels P, Clayton C. Compartmentation of phosphoglycerate kinase in Trypanosoma brucei plays a critical role in parasite energy metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Sep 29; 95(20):11596-600. PMID: 9751711; PMCID: PMC21686.
    136. Adjé CA, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Molecular analysis of phosphoglycerate kinase in Trypanoplasma borreli and the evolution of this enzyme in kinetoplastida. Gene. 1998 Sep 14; 217(1-2):91-9. PMID: 9795157.
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    137. Ernest I, Callens M, Uttaro AD, Chevalier N, Opperdoes FR, Muirhead H, Michels PA. Pyruvate kinase of Trypanosoma brucei: overexpression, purification, and functional characterization of wild-type and mutated enzyme. Protein Expr Purif. 1998 Aug; 13(3):373-82. PMID: 9693062.
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    138. Zomer AW, Allert S, Chevalier N, Callens M, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Purification and characterisation of the phosphoglycerate kinase isoenzymes of Trypanosoma brucei expressed in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Jul 28; 1386(1):179-88. PMID: 9675273.
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    139. Souza DH, Garratt RC, Araújo AP, Guimarães BG, Jesus WD, Michels PA, Hannaert V, Oliva G. Trypanosoma cruzi glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: structure, catalytic mechanism and targeted inhibitor design. FEBS Lett. 1998 Mar 13; 424(3):131-5. PMID: 9580189.
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    140. Bernstein BE, Michels PA, Kim H, Petra PH, Hol WG. The importance of dynamic light scattering in obtaining multiple crystal forms of Trypanosoma brucei PGK. Protein Sci. 1998 Feb; 7(2):504-7. PMID: 9521128; PMCID: PMC2143923.
    141. Michels PA, Chevalier N, Opperdoes FR, Rider MH, Rigden DJ. The glycosomal ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase of Trypanosoma brucei must have evolved from an ancestral pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Dec 15; 250(3):698-704. PMID: 9461292.
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    142. Adjé CA, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Organization, sequence and stage-specific expression of the phosphoglycerate kinase genes of Leishmania mexicana mexicana. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1997 Dec 01; 90(1):155-68. PMID: 9497040.
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    143. Bakker BM, Michels PA, Opperdoes FR, Westerhoff HV. Glycolysis in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei can be understood in terms of the kinetics of the glycolytic enzymes. J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 07; 272(6):3207-15. PMID: 9013556.
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    144. Bernstein BE, Michels PA, Hol WG. Synergistic effects of substrate-induced conformational changes in phosphoglycerate kinase activation. Nature. 1997 Jan 16; 385(6613):275-8. PMID: 9000079.
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    145. Clayton CE, Michels P. Metabolic compartmentation in African trypanosomes. Parasitol Today. 1996 Dec; 12(12):465-71. PMID: 15275265.
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    146. Kohl L, Drmota T, Thi CD, Callens M, Van Beeumen J, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Cloning and characterization of the NAD-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania mexicana mexicana and expression of the trypanosome enzyme in Escherichia coli. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1996 Feb-Mar; 76(1-2):159-73. PMID: 8920004.
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    147. Wiemer EA, Michels PA, Opperdoes FR. The inhibition of pyruvate transport across the plasma membrane of the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei and its metabolic implications. Biochem J. 1995 Dec 01; 312 ( Pt 2):479-84. PMID: 8526859; PMCID: PMC1136287.
    148. Bakker BM, Westerhoff HV, Michels PA. Regulation and control of compartmentalized glycolysis in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1995 Oct; 27(5):513-25. PMID: 8718456.
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    149. Hannaert V, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi: expression in Escherichia coli, purification, and characterization of the enzymes. Protein Expr Purif. 1995 Jun; 6(3):244-50. PMID: 7663157.
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    150. Wiemer EA, Hannaert V, van den IJssel PR, Van Roy J, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Molecular analysis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Trypanoplasma borelli: an evolutionary scenario of subcellular compartmentation in kinetoplastida. J Mol Evol. 1995 Apr; 40(4):443-54. PMID: 7769620.
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    151. Chevalier N, Callens M, Michels PA. High-level expression of Trypanosoma brucei fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase in Escherichia coli and purification of the enzyme. Protein Expr Purif. 1995 Feb; 6(1):39-44. PMID: 7756837.
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    152. Verlinde CL, Callens M, Van Calenbergh S, Van Aerschot A, Herdewijn P, Hannaert V, Michels PA, Opperdoes FR, Hol WG. Selective inhibition of trypanosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by protein structure-based design: toward new drugs for the treatment of sleeping sickness. J Med Chem. 1994 Oct 14; 37(21):3605-13. PMID: 7932587.
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    153. Hannaert V, Callens M, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Purification and characterization of the native and the recombinant Leishmania mexicana glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Eur J Biochem. 1994 Oct 01; 225(1):143-9. PMID: 7925431.
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    154. Nyame K, Do-Thi CD, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Subcellular distribution and characterization of glucosephosphate isomerase in Leishmania mexicana mexicana. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1994 Oct; 67(2):269-79. PMID: 7870131.
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    155. Ernest I, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding pyruvate kinase in Trypanoplasma borelli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Jun 15; 201(2):727-32. PMID: 8003008.
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    156. Hannaert V, Michels PA. Structure, function, and biogenesis of glycosomes in kinetoplastida. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1994 Apr; 26(2):205-12. PMID: 8056787.
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    157. Michels PA, Hannaert V. The evolution of kinetoplastid glycosomes. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1994 Apr; 26(2):213-9. PMID: 8056788.
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    158. Ernest I, Callens M, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Pyruvate kinase of Leishmania mexicana mexicana. Cloning and analysis of the gene, overexpression in Escherichia coli and characterization of the enzyme. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1994 Mar; 64(1):43-54. PMID: 8078522.
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    159. Kohl L, Callens M, Wierenga RK, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Triose-phosphate isomerase of Leishmania mexicana mexicana. Cloning and characterization of the gene, overexpression in Escherichia coli and analysis of the protein. Eur J Biochem. 1994 Mar 01; 220(2):331-8. PMID: 8125090.
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    160. Borchert TV, Pratt K, Zeelen JP, Callens M, Noble ME, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA, Wierenga RK. Overexpression of trypanosomal triosephosphate isomerase in Escherichia coli and characterisation of a dimer-interface mutant. Eur J Biochem. 1993 Feb 01; 211(3):703-10. PMID: 8436128.
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    161. Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. The glycosomes of the Kinetoplastida. Biochimie. 1993; 75(3-4):231-4. PMID: 8507685.
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    162. Fothergill-Gilmore LA, Michels PA. Evolution of glycolysis. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 1993; 59(2):105-235. PMID: 8426905.
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    163. Ter Kuile BH, Wiemer EA, Michels PA, Opperdoes FR. The electrochemical proton gradient in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei is dependent on the temperature. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1992 Oct; 55(1-2):21-7. PMID: 1435870.
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    164. Bakalara N, Kendall G, Michels PA, Opperdoes FR. Trypanosoma brucei glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes are stage-regulated at the transcription level. EMBO J. 1992 Oct; 11(10):3808. PMID: 1396574; PMCID: PMC556841.
    165. Hannaert V, Blaauw M, Kohl L, Allert S, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Molecular analysis of the cytosolic and glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Leishmania mexicana. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1992 Oct; 55(1-2):115-26. PMID: 1435864.
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    166. Wiemer EA, Ter Kuile BH, Michels PA, Opperdoes FR. Pyruvate transport across the plasma membrane of the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei is mediated by a facilitated diffusion carrier. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 Apr 30; 184(2):1028-34. PMID: 1575722.
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    167. Bakalara N, Kendall G, Michels PA, Opperdoes FR. Trypanosoma brucei glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes are stage-regulated at the transcriptional level. EMBO J. 1991 Dec; 10(12):3861-8. PMID: 1935905; PMCID: PMC453123.
    168. Allert S, Ernest I, Poliszczak A, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Molecular cloning and analysis of two tandemly linked genes for pyruvate kinase of Trypanosoma brucei. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Aug 15; 200(1):19-27. PMID: 1879424.
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    169. Lambeir AM, Loiseau AM, Kuntz DA, Vellieux FM, Michels PA, Opperdoes FR. The cytosolic and glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma brucei. Kinetic properties and comparison with homologous enzymes. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Jun 01; 198(2):429-35. PMID: 2040304.
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    170. Michels PA, Marchand M, Kohl L, Allert S, Wierenga RK, Opperdoes FR. The cytosolic and glycosomal isoenzymes of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Trypanosoma brucei have a distant evolutionary relationship. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Jun 01; 198(2):421-8. PMID: 2040303.
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    171. Michels PA, Opperdoes FR. The evolutionary origin of glycosomes. Parasitol Today. 1991 May; 7(5):105-9. PMID: 15463459.
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    172. Michels PA, Hannaert V, Ernest I, Allert S. Organization, structure and evolutionary aspects of genes in trypanosomes. Biochem Soc Trans. 1990 Oct; 18(5):727-9. PMID: 2128059.
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    173. Vijayasarathy S, Ernest I, Itzhaki JE, Sherman D, Mowatt MR, Michels PA, Clayton CE. The genes encoding fructose bisphosphate aldolase in Trypanosoma brucei are interspersed with unrelated genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 May 25; 18(10):2967-75. PMID: 2349093; PMCID: PMC330826.
    174. Michels PA. The glycosome of trypanosomes: properties and biogenesis of a microbody. Exp Parasitol. 1989 Oct; 69(3):310-5. PMID: 2676581.
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    175. Marchand M, Kooystra U, Wierenga RK, Lambeir AM, Van Beeumen J, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Glucosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma brucei. Cloning and characterization of the gene and analysis of the enzyme. Eur J Biochem. 1989 Sep 15; 184(2):455-64. PMID: 2792108.
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    176. Marchand M, Poliszczak A, Gibson WC, Wierenga RK, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA. Characterization of the genes for fructose-bisphosphate aldolase in Trypanosoma brucei. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1988 May; 29(1):65-75. PMID: 3386689.
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    177. Michels PA. Compartmentation of glycolysis in trypanosomes: a potential target for new trypanocidal drugs. Biol Cell. 1988; 64(2):157-64. PMID: 3067796.
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    178. Wierenga RK, Swinkels B, Michels PA, Osinga K, Misset O, Van Beeumen J, Gibson WC, Postma JP, Borst P, Opperdoes FR, et al. Common elements on the surface of glycolytic enzymes from Trypanosoma brucei may serve as topogenic signals for import into glycosomes. EMBO J. 1987 Jan; 6(1):215-21. PMID: 3582360; PMCID: PMC553379.
    179. Michels PA, Poliszczak A, Osinga KA, Misset O, Van Beeumen J, Wierenga RK, Borst P, Opperdoes FR. Two tandemly linked identical genes code for the glycosomal glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase in Trypanosoma brucei. EMBO J. 1986 May; 5(5):1049-56. PMID: 3013612; PMCID: PMC1166900.
    180. Michels PA. Evolutionary aspects of trypanosomes: analysis of genes. J Mol Evol. 1986; 24(1-2):45-52. PMID: 3104618.
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    181. Osinga KA, Swinkels BW, Gibson WC, Borst P, Veeneman GH, Van Boom JH, Michels PA, Opperdoes FR. Topogenesis of microbody enzymes: a sequence comparison of the genes for the glycosomal (microbody) and cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinases of Trypanosoma brucei. EMBO J. 1985 Dec 30; 4(13B):3811-7. PMID: 3004970; PMCID: PMC554735.
    182. Cornelissen AW, Michels PA, Borst P, Spanjer W, Versluijs-Broers JA, Van der Meer C, Farzaneh F, Shall S. Effect of 3-aminobenzamide on antigenic variation of Trypanosoma brucei. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985 Dec 01; 34(23):4151-6. PMID: 2998400.
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    183. Gibson WC, Osinga KA, Michels PA, Borst P. Trypanosomes of subgenus Trypanozoon are diploid for housekeeping genes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1985 Sep; 16(3):231-42. PMID: 3840571.
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    184. Cornelissen AW, Bakkeren GA, Barry JD, Michels PA, Borst P. Characteristics of trypanosome variant antigen genes active in the tsetse fly. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Jul 11; 13(13):4661-76. PMID: 4022771; PMCID: PMC321818.
    185. Liu AY, Michels PA, Bernards A, Borst P. Trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein genes expressed early in infection. J Mol Biol. 1985 Apr 05; 182(3):383-96. PMID: 4009712.
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    186. Farzaneh F, Shall S, Michels P, Borst P. ADP-ribosyl transferase activity in Trypanosoma brucei. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1985 Mar; 14(3):251-9. PMID: 2985984.
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    187. Michels PA, Van der Ploeg LH, Liu AY, Borst P. The inactivation and reactivation of an expression-linked gene copy for a variant surface glycoprotein in Trypanosoma brucei. EMBO J. 1984 Jun; 3(6):1345-51. PMID: 6086319; PMCID: PMC557521.
    188. De Lange T, Michels PA, Veerman HJ, Cornelissen AW, Borst P. Many trypanosome messenger RNAs share a common 5' terminal sequence. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 May 11; 12(9):3777-90. PMID: 6547230; PMCID: PMC318789.
    189. Bernards A, De Lange T, Michels PA, Liu AY, Huisman MJ, Borst P. Two modes of activation of a single surface antigen gene of Trypanosoma brucei. Cell. 1984 Jan; 36(1):163-70. PMID: 6692467.
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    190. Borst P, Bernards A, van der Ploeg LH, Michels PA, Liu AY, de Lange T, Kooter JM. The control of variant surface antigen synthesis in trypanosomes. Eur J Biochem. 1983 Dec 15; 137(3):383-9. PMID: 6319121.
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    191. De Lange T, Kooter JM, Michels PA, Borst P. Telomere conversion in trypanosomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Dec 10; 11(23):8149-65. PMID: 6324075; PMCID: PMC326572.
    192. Michels PA, Liu AY, Bernards A, Sloof P, Van der Bijl MM, Schinkel AH, Menke HH, Borst P, Veeneman GH, Tromp MC, Van Boom JH. Activation of the genes for variant surface glycoproteins 117 and 118 in Trypanosoma brucei. J Mol Biol. 1983 Jun 05; 166(4):537-56. PMID: 6306248.
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    193. Van der Ploeg LH, Liu AY, Michels PA, De Lange T, Borst P, Majumder HK, Weber H, Veeneman GH, Van Boom J. RNA splicing is required to make the messenger RNA for a variant surface antigen in trypanosomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Jun 25; 10(12):3591-604. PMID: 6287414; PMCID: PMC320737.
    194. Michels PA, Bernards A, Van der Ploeg LH, Borst P. Characterization of the expression-linked gene copies of variant surface glycoprotein 118 in two independently isolated clones of Trypanosoma brucei. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Apr 10; 10(7):2353-66. PMID: 6283477; PMCID: PMC320614.
    195. Elferink MG, Hellingwerf KJ, Michels PA, Seÿen HG, Konings WN. Immunochemical analysis of membrane vesicles and chromatophoresis of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. FEBS Lett. 1979 Nov 15; 107(2):300-7. PMID: 159833.
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    196. Elema RP, Michels PA, Konings WN. Response of 9-aminoacridine fluorescence to transmembrane pH-gradients in chromatophores from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Eur J Biochem. 1978 Dec; 92(2):381-7. PMID: 33044.
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    197. Michels PA, Konings WN. The electrochemical proton gradient generated by light in membrane vesicles and chromatophores from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Eur J Biochem. 1978 Apr; 85(1):147-55. PMID: 25184.
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    198. Hellingwerf KJ, Michels PA, Dorpema JW, Konings WN. Transport of amino acids in membrane vesicles of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides energized by respiratory and cyclic electron flow. Eur J Biochem. 1975 Jul 01; 55(2):397-406. PMID: 1081452.
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