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Professor Paul Fine

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Lyons NA, Alexander N, Stärk KD, Dulu TD, Sumption KJ, James AD, Rushton J, Fine PE. Impact of foot-and-mouth disease on milk production on a large-scale dairy farm in Kenya. Prev Vet Med. 2015 Jun 15; 120(2):177-86. PMID: 25912977.
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    2. Lyons NA, Alexander N, St?rk KD, Dulu TD, Rushton J, Fine PE. Impact of foot-and-mouth disease on mastitis and culling on a large-scale dairy farm in Kenya. Vet Res. 2015 Apr 16; 46:41. PMID: 25889460; PMCID: PMC4397692.
    3. Guerra-Assunção JA, Crampin AC, Houben RM, Mzembe T, Mallard K, Coll F, Khan P, Banda L, Chiwaya A, Pereira RP, McNerney R, Fine PE, Parkhill J, Clark TG, Glynn JR. Large-scale whole genome sequencing of M. tuberculosis provides insights into transmission in a high prevalence area. Elife. 2015 Mar 03; 4. PMID: 25732036; PMCID: PMC4384740.
    4. Lyons NA, Stärk KD, van Maanen C, Thomas SL, Chepkwony EC, Sangula AK, Dulu TD, Fine PE. Epidemiological analysis of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (serotype SAT2) on a large dairy farm in Kenya using regular vaccination. Acta Trop. 2015 Mar; 143:103-11. PMID: 25447264.
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    5. Grimes CL, Lukacz ES, Gantz MG, Warren LK, Brubaker L, Zyczynski HM, Richter HE, Jelovsek JE, Cundiff G, Fine P, Visco AG, Zhang M, Meikle S. What happens to the posterior compartment and bowel symptoms after sacrocolpopexy? evaluation of 5-year outcomes from E-CARE. Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 2014 Sep-Oct; 20(5):261-6. PMID: 25181375; PMCID: PMC4159620.
    6. Fine P. Science and society: vaccines and public health. Public Health. 2014 Aug; 128(8):686-92. PMID: 25132389.
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    7. Jackson C, Mangtani P, Fine P, Vynnycky E. The effects of school holidays on transmission of varicella zoster virus, England and Wales, 1967-2008. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e99762. PMID: 24932994; PMCID: PMC4059708.
    8. Mangtani P, Rodrigues LC, Sterne JA, Abubakar I, Fine PE. Reply to Kernodle and von Reyn. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 15; 59(4):608-9. PMID: 24803378.
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    9. Mangtani P, Abubakar I, Ariti C, Beynon R, Pimpin L, Fine PE, Rodrigues LC, Smith PG, Lipman M, Whiting PF, Sterne JA. Protection by BCG vaccine against tuberculosis: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Feb; 58(4):470-80. PMID: 24336911.
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    10. Jackson C, Mann A, Mangtani P, Fine P. Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administered according to various schedules: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational data. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Nov; 32(11):1261-9. PMID: 23811746.
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    11. Abubakar I, Pimpin L, Ariti C, Beynon R, Mangtani P, Sterne JA, Fine PE, Smith PG, Lipman M, Elliman D, Watson JM, Drumright LN, Whiting PF, Vynnycky E, Rodrigues LC. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the current evidence on the duration of protection by bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination against tuberculosis. Health Technol Assess. 2013 Sep; 17(37):1-372, v-vi. PMID: 24021245; PMCID: PMC4781620.
    12. Martens MG, Fine P, Fuller D, Ginde SY, Hook EW, Lebed J, Mena L, Taylor SN, Van Der Pol B. Clinical evaluation of a new Pap test-based method for screening of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using liquid-based cytology media. South Med J. 2013 Sep; 106(9):506-12. PMID: 24002555.
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    13. Paneth N, Fine P. The singular science of John Snow. Lancet. 2013 Apr 13; 381(9874):1267-8. PMID: 23589913.
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    14. Fine P, Goldacre B, Haines A. Epidemiology--a science for the people. Lancet. 2013 Apr 13; 381(9874):1249-52. PMID: 23582383.
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    15. Fine P, Victora CG, Rothman KJ, Moore PS, Chang Y, Curtis V, Heymann DL, Slutkin G, May RM, Patel V, Roberts I, Wortley R, Torgerson C, Deaton A. John Snow's legacy: epidemiology without borders. Lancet. 2013 Apr 13; 381(9874):1302-11. PMID: 23582396; PMCID: PMC3730273.
    16. Dye C, Fine PE. A major event for new tuberculosis vaccines. Lancet. 2013 Mar 23; 381(9871):972-4. PMID: 23391464.
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    17. Mboma SM, Houben RM, Glynn JR, Sichali L, Drobniewski F, Mpunga J, Fine PE, French N, Crampin AC. Control of (multi)drug resistance and tuberculosis incidence over 23 years in the context of a well-supported tuberculosis programme in rural Malawi. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58192. PMID: 23483994; PMCID: PMC3590148.
    18. Chirwa T, Floyd S, Fine P. Estimating the extent of household contact misclassification with index cases of disease in longitudinal studies using a stochastic simulation model. Glob Health Action. 2013 Jan 24; 6:19614. PMID: 23364077; PMCID: PMC3556686.
    19. Van Der Pol B, Warren T, Taylor SN, Martens M, Jerome KR, Mena L, Lebed J, Ginde S, Fine P, Hook EW. Type-specific identification of anogenital herpes simplex virus infections by use of a commercially available nucleic acid amplification test. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Nov; 50(11):3466-71. PMID: 22875892; PMCID: PMC3486267.
    20. Crampin AC, Dube A, Mboma S, Price A, Chihana M, Jahn A, Baschieri A, Molesworth A, Mwaiyeghele E, Branson K, Floyd S, McGrath N, Fine PE, French N, Glynn JR, Zaba B. Profile: the Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Int J Epidemiol. 2012 Jun; 41(3):676-85. PMID: 22729235; PMCID: PMC3396313.
    21. Larrea MR, Carreño MC, Fine PE. Patterns and trends of leprosy in Mexico: 1989-2009. Lepr Rev. 2012 Jun; 83(2):184-94. PMID: 22997694.
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    22. McShane H, Jacobs WR, Fine PE, Reed SG, McMurray DN, Behr M, Williams A, Orme IM. BCG: myths, realities, and the need for alternative vaccine strategies. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2012 May; 92(3):283-8. PMID: 22349516.
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    23. Van Der Pol B, Taylor SN, Lebar W, Davis T, Fuller D, Mena L, Fine P, Gaydos CA, Martin DH, Hook EW. Clinical evaluation of the BD ProbeTec™ Neisseria gonorrhoeae Qx amplified DNA assay on the BD Viper™ system with XTR™ technology. Sex Transm Dis. 2012 Feb; 39(2):147-53. PMID: 22249304; PMCID: PMC3725734.
    24. Fine PE, Smith PG, Evans SJ. Non-specific effects of BCG? J Infect Dis. 2012 Feb 01; 205(3):515; author reply 517-8. PMID: 22147789.
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    25. Lalor MK, Floyd S, Gorak-Stolinska P, Ben-Smith A, Weir RE, Smith SG, Newport MJ, Blitz R, Mvula H, Branson K, McGrath N, Crampin AC, Fine PE, Dockrell HM. BCG vaccination induces different cytokine profiles following infant BCG vaccination in the UK and Malawi. J Infect Dis. 2011 Oct 01; 204(7):1075-85. PMID: 21881123; PMCID: PMC3164434.
    26. Lanini S, Molloy AC, Fine PE, Prentice AG, Ippolito G, Kibbler CC. Risk of infection in patients with lymphoma receiving rituximab: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med. 2011 Apr 12; 9:36. PMID: 21481281; PMCID: PMC3094236.
    27. Fine P, Eames K, Heymann DL. "Herd immunity": a rough guide. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 01; 52(7):911-6. PMID: 21427399.
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    28. Crampin A, Kasimba S, Mwaungulu NJ, Dacombe R, Floyd S, Glynn JR, Fine PE. Married to M. tuberculosis: risk of infection and disease in spouses of smear-positive tuberculosis patients. Trop Med Int Health. 2011 Jul; 16(7):811-8. PMID: 21447058; PMCID: PMC3378469.
    29. Lalor MK, Floyd S, Gorak-Stolinska P, Weir RE, Blitz R, Branson K, Fine PE, Dockrell HM. BCG vaccination: a role for vitamin D? PLoS One. 2011 Jan 31; 6(1):e16709. PMID: 21304967; PMCID: PMC3031626.
    30. Heymann DL, Fine PE, Griffiths UK, Hall AJ, Mounier-Jack S. Measles eradication: past is prologue. Lancet. 2010 Nov 20; 376(9754):1719-20. PMID: 21093636.
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    31. McGrath N, Glynn JR, Saul J, Kranzer K, Jahn A, Mwaungulu F, Ngwira MH, Mvula H, Munthali F, Mwinuka V, Mwaungulu L, Fine PE, Crampin AC. What happens to ART-eligible patients who do not start ART? Dropout between screening and ART initiation: a cohort study in Karonga, Malawi. BMC Public Health. 2010 Oct 12; 10:601. PMID: 20939872; PMCID: PMC2964626.
    32. Glynn JR, Alghamdi S, Mallard K, McNerney R, Ndlovu R, Munthali L, Houben RM, Fine PE, French N, Crampin AC. Changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype families over 20 years in a population-based study in Northern Malawi. PLoS One. 2010 Aug 17; 5(8):e12259. PMID: 20808874; PMCID: PMC2923199.
    33. Thye T, Vannberg FO, Wong SH, Owusu-Dabo E, Osei I, Gyapong J, Sirugo G, Sisay-Joof F, Enimil A, Chinbuah MA, Floyd S, Warndorff DK, Sichali L, Malema S, Crampin AC, Ngwira B, Teo YY, Small K, Rockett K, Kwiatkowski D, Fine PE, Hill PC, Newport M, Lienhardt C, Adegbola RA, Corrah T, Ziegler A. Genome-wide association analyses identifies a susceptibility locus for tuberculosis on chromosome 18q11.2. Nat Genet. 2010 Sep; 42(9):739-741. PMID: 20694014; PMCID: PMC4975513.
    34. Fine P, Elliman D. Non-specific effects of vaccines: in context. Arch Dis Child. 2010 Sep; 95(9):661. PMID: 20656728.
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    35. Wong SH, Gochhait S, Malhotra D, Pettersson FH, Teo YY, Khor CC, Rautanen A, Chapman SJ, Mills TC, Srivastava A, Rudko A, Freidin MB, Puzyrev VP, Ali S, Aggarwal S, Chopra R, Reddy BS, Garg VK, Roy S, Meisner S, Hazra SK, Saha B, Floyd S, Keating BJ, Kim C, Fairfax BP, Knight JC, Hill PC, Adegbola RA, Hakonarson H, Fine PE, Pitchappan RM, Bamezai RN, Hill AV, Vannberg FO. Leprosy and the adaptation of human toll-like receptor 1. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Jul 01; 6:e1000979. PMID: 20617178; PMCID: PMC2895660.
    36. Houben RM, Glynn JR, Mallard K, Sichali L, Malema S, Fine PE, French N, Crampin AC. Human immunodeficiency virus increases the risk of tuberculosis due to recent re-infection in individuals with latent infection. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Jul; 14(7):909-15. PMID: 20550777; PMCID: PMC3276831.
    37. Jahn A, Floyd S, McGrath N, Crampin AC, Kachiwanda L, Mwinuka V, Zaba B, Fine PE, Glynn JR. Child mortality in rural Malawi: HIV closes the survival gap between the socio-economic strata. PLoS One. 2010 Jun 28; 5(6):e11320. PMID: 20596521; PMCID: PMC2893132.
    38. Truman R, Fine PE. 'Environmental' sources of Mycobacterium leprae: issues and evidence. Lepr Rev. 2010 Jun; 81(2):89-95. PMID: 20825112.
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    39. Khor CC, Vannberg FO, Chapman SJ, Guo H, Wong SH, Walley AJ, Vukcevic D, Rautanen A, Mills TC, Chang KC, Kam KM, Crampin AC, Ngwira B, Leung CC, Tam CM, Chan CY, Sung JJ, Yew WW, Toh KY, Tay SK, Kwiatkowski D, Lienhardt C, Hien TT, Day NP, Peshu N, Marsh K, Maitland K, Scott JA, Williams TN, Berkley JA, Floyd S, Tang NL, Fine PE, Goh DL, Hill AV. CISH and susceptibility to infectious diseases. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 03; 362(22):2092-101. PMID: 20484391; PMCID: PMC3646238.
    40. Jahn A, Floyd S, Crampin AC, Mvula H, Mwinuka V, Mwaiyeghele E, McGrath N, Zaba B, Fine PE, Glynn JR. Declining child mortality in northern Malawi despite high rates of infection with HIV. Bull World Health Organ. 2010 Oct 01; 88(10):746-53. PMID: 20931059; PMCID: PMC2947043.
    41. Crampin AC, Mwaungulu JN, Mwaungulu FD, Mwafulirwa DT, Munthali K, Floyd S, Fine PE, Glynn JR. Recurrent TB: relapse or reinfection? The effect of HIV in a general population cohort in Malawi. AIDS. 2010 Jan 28; 24(3):417-26. PMID: 20042847; PMCID: PMC2917772.
    42. Koba A, Ishii N, Mori S, Fine PE. The decline of leprosy in Japan: patterns and trends 1964-2008. Lepr Rev. 2009 Dec; 80(4):432-40. PMID: 20306642.
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    43. Lalor MK, Smith SG, Floyd S, Gorak-Stolinska P, Weir RE, Blitz R, Branson K, Fine PE, Dockrell HM. Complex cytokine profiles induced by BCG vaccination in UK infants. Vaccine. 2010 Feb 10; 28(6):1635-41. PMID: 19941997; PMCID: PMC2824844.
    44. Savy M, Edmond K, Fine PE, Hall A, Hennig BJ, Moore SE, Mulholland K, Schaible U, Prentice AM. Landscape analysis of interactions between nutrition and vaccine responses in children. J Nutr. 2009 Nov; 139(11):2154S-218S. PMID: 19793845.
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    45. Fine PE. Polio: measuring the protection that matters most. J Infect Dis. 2009 Sep 01; 200(5):673-5. PMID: 19624277.
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    46. Pang D, Syed S, Fine P, Jones PB. No association between prenatal viral infection and depression in later life--a long-term cohort study of 6152 subjects. Can J Psychiatry. 2009 Aug; 54(8):565-70. PMID: 19726009.
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    47. Hesseling AC, Johnson LF, Jaspan H, Cotton MF, Whitelaw A, Schaaf HS, Fine PE, Eley BS, Marais BJ, Nuttall J, Beyers N, Godfrey-Faussett P. Disseminated bacille Calmette-Guérin disease in HIV-infected South African infants. Bull World Health Organ. 2009 Jul; 87(7):505-11. PMID: 19649364; PMCID: PMC2704039.
    48. Fine PE, Williams TN, Aaby P, Källander K, Moulton LH, Flanagan KL, Smith PG, Benn CS. Epidemiological studies of the 'non-specific effects' of vaccines: I--data collection in observational studies. Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Sep; 14(9):969-76. PMID: 19531117.
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    49. Houben RM, Crampin AC, Mallard K, Mwaungulu JN, Yates MD, Mwaungulu FD, Ngwira BM, French N, Fine PE, Glynn JR. HIV and the risk of tuberculosis due to recent transmission over 12 years in Karonga District, Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Dec; 103(12):1187-9. PMID: 19362727; PMCID: PMC2784949.
    50. Lalor MK, Ben-Smith A, Gorak-Stolinska P, Weir RE, Floyd S, Blitz R, Mvula H, Newport MJ, Branson K, McGrath N, Crampin AC, Fine PE, Dockrell HM. Population differences in immune responses to Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination in infancy. J Infect Dis. 2009 Mar 15; 199(6):795-800. PMID: 19434928; PMCID: PMC3276835.
    51. Crampin AC, Glynn JR, Fine PE. What has Karonga taught us? Tuberculosis studied over three decades. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009 Feb; 13(2):153-64. PMID: 19146741; PMCID: PMC3272402.
    52. Wringe A, Fine PE, Sutter RW, Kew OM. Estimating the extent of vaccine-derived poliovirus infection. PLoS One. 2008; 3(10):e3433. PMID: 18958288; PMCID: PMC2570794.
    53. Ben-Smith A, Gorak-Stolinska P, Floyd S, Weir RE, Lalor MK, Mvula H, Crampin AC, Wallace D, Beverley PC, Fine PE, Dockrell HM. Differences between naive and memory T cell phenotype in Malawian and UK adolescents: a role for Cytomegalovirus? BMC Infect Dis. 2008 Oct 15; 8:139. PMID: 18922182; PMCID: PMC2596152.
    54. Kranzer K, McGrath N, Saul J, Crampin AC, Jahn A, Malema S, Mulawa D, Fine PE, Zaba B, Glynn JR. Individual, household and community factors associated with HIV test refusal in rural Malawi. Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Nov; 13(11):1341-50. PMID: 18983282.
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    55. Fine PE. Leprosy's global statistics--still room for improvement. Lepr Rev. 2008 Sep; 79(3):235-8. PMID: 19009972.
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    56. Prost MA, Jahn A, Floyd S, Mvula H, Mwaiyeghele E, Mwinuka V, Mhango T, Crampin AC, McGrath N, Fine PE, Glynn JR. Implication of new WHO growth standards on identification of risk factors and estimated prevalence of malnutrition in rural Malawian infants. PLoS One. 2008 Jul 16; 3(7):e2684. PMID: 18628980; PMCID: PMC2442189.
    57. Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Traore H, Chaguluka S, Mwafulirwa DT, Alghamdi S, Ngwira BM, Yates MD, Drobniewski FD, Fine PE. Determinants of cluster size in large, population-based molecular epidemiology study of tuberculosis, northern Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Jul; 14(7):1060-6. PMID: 18598626; PMCID: PMC2600342.
    58. Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Ngwira BM, Ndhlovu R, Mwanyongo O, Fine PE. Herpes simplex virus type 2 trends in relation to the HIV epidemic in northern Malawi. Sex Transm Infect. 2008 Oct; 84(5):356-60. PMID: 18524842; PMCID: PMC2566535.
    59. Crampin AC, Floyd S, Ngwira BM, Mwinuka V, Mwaungulu JN, Branson K, Fine PE, Glynn JR. Assessment and evaluation of contact as a risk factor for tuberculosis in rural Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008 Jun; 12(6):612-8. PMID: 18492326; PMCID: PMC2443279.
    60. Crampin AC, Jahn A, Kondowe M, Ngwira BM, Hemmings J, Glynn JR, Floyd S, Fine PE, Zaba B. Use of antenatal clinic surveillance to assess the effect of sexual behavior on HIV prevalence in young women in Karonga district, Malawi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Jun 01; 48(2):196-202. PMID: 18520678; PMCID: PMC2478724.
    61. Jahn A, Floyd S, Crampin AC, Mwaungulu F, Mvula H, Munthali F, McGrath N, Mwafilaso J, Mwinuka V, Mangongo B, Fine PE, Zaba B, Glynn JR. Population-level effect of HIV on adult mortality and early evidence of reversal after introduction of antiretroviral therapy in Malawi. Lancet. 2008 May 10; 371(9624):1603-11. PMID: 18468544; PMCID: PMC2387197.
    62. Cooke GS, Campbell SJ, Bennett S, Lienhardt C, McAdam KP, Sirugo G, Sow O, Gustafson P, Mwangulu F, van Helden P, Fine P, Hoal EG, Hill AV. Mapping of a novel susceptibility locus suggests a role for MC3R and CTSZ in human tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Jul 15; 178(2):203-7. PMID: 18420963; PMCID: PMC2643210.
    63. Young SK, Ponnighaus JM, Jain S, Lucas S, Suneetha S, Lockwood DN, Young DB, Fine PE. Use of short tandem repeat sequences to study Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients in Malawi and India. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008 Apr 09; 2(4):e214. PMID: 18398487; PMCID: PMC2271132.
    64. Floyd S, Crampin AC, Glynn JR, Mwenebabu M, Mnkhondia S, Ngwira B, Zaba B, Fine PE. The long-term social and economic impact of HIV on the spouses of infected individuals in northern Malawi. Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Apr; 13(4):520-31. PMID: 18298606.
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    65. Weir RE, Gorak-Stolinska P, Floyd S, Lalor MK, Stenson S, Branson K, Blitz R, Ben-Smith A, Fine PE, Dockrell HM. Persistence of the immune response induced by BCG vaccination. BMC Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 25; 8:9. PMID: 18221509; PMCID: PMC2263052.
    66. Vannberg FO, Chapman SJ, Khor CC, Tosh K, Floyd S, Jackson-Sillah D, Crampin A, Sichali L, Bah B, Gustafson P, Aaby P, McAdam KP, Bah-Sow O, Lienhardt C, Sirugo G, Fine P, Hill AV. CD209 genetic polymorphism and tuberculosis disease. PLoS One. 2008 Jan 02; 3(1):e1388. PMID: 18167547; PMCID: PMC2148105.
    67. Weir RE, Fine PE, Floyd S, Stenson S, Stanley C, Branson K, Britton WJ, Huygen K, Singh M, Black G, Dockrell HM. Comparison of IFN-gamma responses to mycobacterial antigens as markers of response to BCG vaccination. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2008 Jan; 88(1):31-8. PMID: 18277396.
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    68. Jahn A, Floyd S, Mwinuka V, Mwafilaso J, Mwagomba D, Mkisi RE, Katsulukuta A, Khunga A, Crampin AC, Branson K, McGrath N, Fine PE. Ascertainment of childhood vaccination histories in northern Malawi. Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Jan; 13(1):129-38. PMID: 18291011.
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    69. McGrath N, Kranzer K, Saul J, Crampin AC, Malema S, Kachiwanda L, Zaba B, Jahn A, Fine PE, Glynn JR. Estimating the need for antiretroviral treatment and an assessment of a simplified HIV/AIDS case definition in rural Malawi. AIDS. 2007 Nov; 21 Suppl 6:S105-13. PMID: 18032933.
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    70. Ciglenecki I, Glynn JR, Mwinga A, Ngwira B, Zumla A, Fine PE, Nunn A. Population differences in death rates in HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007 Oct; 11(10):1121-8. PMID: 17945070.
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    71. Vynnycky E, Borgdorff MW, Leung CC, Tam CM, Fine PE. Limited impact of tuberculosis control in Hong Kong: attributable to high risks of reactivation disease. Epidemiol Infect. 2008 Jul; 136(7):943-52. PMID: 17678555; PMCID: PMC2870882.
    72. Hesseling AC, Cotton MF, Marais BJ, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, Beyers N, Fine PE, Abrams EJ, Godfrey-Faussett P, Kuhn L. BCG and HIV reconsidered: moving the research agenda forward. Vaccine. 2007 Sep 04; 25(36):6565-8. PMID: 17659816.
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    73. Floyd S, Crampin AC, Glynn JR, Madise N, Mwenebabu M, Mnkhondia S, Ngwira B, Zaba B, Fine PE. The social and economic impact of parental HIV on children in northern Malawi: retrospective population-based cohort study. AIDS Care. 2007 Jul; 19(6):781-90. PMID: 17573599.
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    74. Fine PE, Griffiths UK. Global poliomyelitis eradication: status and implications. Lancet. 2007 Apr 21; 369(9570):1321-2. PMID: 17448799.
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    75. Campbell O, Coleman M, Cousens S, Doyle P, Elbourne D, Evans S, Filteau S, Fine PE, Glynn JR, Grundy E, Haines A, Hall AJ, Hayes R, Kenward M, Kirkwood B, Lamping DL, Lee K, Leon D, Mabey D, McKee M, Meade T, Milligan P, Mills A, Patel V, Peto J, Pocock S, Prentice A, Roberts I, Rodrigues LC, dos Santos Silva I, Smeeth L, Sondorp E, De Stavola B, Timaeus IM, Walt G, Whittaker J, Wilkinson P, Zaba B. Reed Elsevier and the arms trade revisited. Lancet. 2007 Mar 24; 369(9566):987. PMID: 17382814.
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    76. White RG, Vynnycky E, Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Jahn A, Mwaungulu F, Mwanyongo O, Jabu H, Phiri H, McGrath N, Zaba B, Fine PE. HIV epidemic trend and antiretroviral treatment need in Karonga District, Malawi. Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Aug; 135(6):922-32. PMID: 17217548; PMCID: PMC2870652.
    77. Fine PE, Smith PG. 'Non-specific effects of vaccines'--an important analytical insight, and call for a workshop. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Jan; 12(1):1-4. PMID: 17207142.
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    78. Fine PE. Leprosy: what is being "eliminated"? Bull World Health Organ. 2007 Jan; 85(1):2. PMID: 17242748; PMCID: PMC2636219.
    79. Weir RE, Black GF, Nazareth B, Floyd S, Stenson S, Stanley C, Branson K, Sichali L, Chaguluka SD, Donovan L, Crampin AC, Fine PE, Dockrell HM. The influence of previous exposure to environmental mycobacteria on the interferon-gamma response to bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination in southern England and northern Malawi. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006 Dec; 146(3):390-9. PMID: 17100757; PMCID: PMC1810413.
    80. Fine PE. Global leprosy statistics: a cause for pride, or frustration? Lepr Rev. 2006 Dec; 77(4):295-7. PMID: 17343216.
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    81. Fine PE, Ritchie S. Perspective: determinants of the severity of poliovirus outbreaks in the post eradication era. Risk Anal. 2006 Dec; 26(6):1533-40. PMID: 17184395.
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    82. Davies GR, Fine PE, Vynnycky E. Mixture analysis of tuberculin survey data from northern Malawi and critique of the method. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Sep; 10(9):1023-9. PMID: 16964795.
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    83. Hesseling AC, Marais BJ, Gie RP, Schaaf HS, Fine PE, Godfrey-Faussett P, Beyers N. The risk of disseminated Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) disease in HIV-infected children. Vaccine. 2007 Jan 02; 25(1):14-8. PMID: 16959383.
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    84. Dacombe RJ, Crampin AC, Floyd S, Randall A, Ndhlovu R, Bickle Q, Fine PE. Time delays between patient and laboratory selectively affect accuracy of helminth diagnosis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Feb; 101(2):140-5. PMID: 16824566.
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    85. Gorak-Stolinska P, Weir RE, Floyd S, Lalor MK, Stenson S, Branson K, Blitz R, Luke S, Nazareth B, Ben-Smith A, Fine PE, Dockrell HM. Immunogenicity of Danish-SSI 1331 BCG vaccine in the UK: comparison with Glaxo-Evans 1077 BCG vaccine. Vaccine. 2006 Jul 17; 24(29-30):5726-33. PMID: 16723176.
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    86. Crampin AC, Glynn JR, Traore H, Yates MD, Mwaungulu L, Mwenebabu M, Chaguluka SD, Floyd S, Drobniewski F, Fine PE. Tuberculosis transmission attributable to close contacts and HIV status, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 May; 12(5):729-35. PMID: 16704828; PMCID: PMC3374426.
    87. Brubaker L, Cundiff GW, Fine P, Nygaard I, Richter HE, Visco AG, Zyczynski H, Brown MB, Weber AM. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy with Burch colposuspension to reduce urinary stress incontinence. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 13; 354(15):1557-66. PMID: 16611949.
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    88. Chilima BZ, Clark IM, Floyd S, Fine PE, Hirsch PR. Distribution of environmental mycobacteria in Karonga District, northern Malawi. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 Apr; 72(4):2343-50. PMID: 16597928; PMCID: PMC1449038.
    89. McCormack GP, Glynn JR, Clewley JP, Crampin AC, Travers SA, Redmond N, Keane TM, Sibande F, Mulawa D, Fine PE. Emergence of a three codon deletion in gag p17 in HIV type 1 subtype C long-term survivors, and general population spread. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006 Feb; 22(2):195-201. PMID: 16478403.
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    90. Bennett AR, Gorak-Stolinska P, Ben-Smith A, Floyd S, de Lara CM, Weir RE, Lalor MK, Makamo K, Msiska GK, Crampin AC, Fine PE, Dockrell HM, Beverley PC. The PPD-specific T-cell clonal response in UK and Malawian subjects following BCG vaccination: a new repertoire evolves over 12 months. Vaccine. 2006 Mar 24; 24(14):2617-26. PMID: 16414159.
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    91. Fine P. The spread of bacterial infection, the problem of herd immunity: Topley WWC, Wilson GS. J Hyg 1923; 21: 243-249. Epidemiol Infect. 2005 Oct; 133 Suppl 1:S35-6. PMID: 24965244.
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    92. Fine P. Stopping routine vaccination for tuberculosis in schools. BMJ. 2005 Sep 24; 331(7518):647-8. PMID: 16179677; PMCID: PMC1226231.
    93. Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Yates MD, Traore H, Mwaungulu FD, Ngwira BM, Ndlovu R, Drobniewski F, Fine PE. The importance of recent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an area with high HIV prevalence: a long-term molecular epidemiological study in Northern Malawi. J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 01; 192(3):480-7. PMID: 15995962.
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    94. Monot M, Honoré N, Garnier T, Araoz R, Coppée JY, Lacroix C, Sow S, Spencer JS, Truman RW, Williams DL, Gelber R, Virmond M, Flageul B, Cho SN, Ji B, Paniz-Mondolfi A, Convit J, Young S, Fine PE, Rasolofo V, Brennan PJ, Cole ST. On the origin of leprosy. Science. 2005 May 13; 308(5724):1040-2. PMID: 15894530.
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    95. Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Traore H, Yates MD, Mwaungulu FD, Ngwira BM, Chaguluka SD, Mwafulirwa DT, Floyd S, Murphy C, Drobniewski FA, Fine PE. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype, northern Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jan; 11(1):150-3. PMID: 15705343; PMCID: PMC3294335.
    96. Fine PE. Non-specific "non-effects" of vaccination. BMJ. 2004 Dec 04; 329(7478):1297-8. PMID: 15576714; PMCID: PMC534824.
    97. Fine PE. Poliomyelitis: very small risks and very large risks. Lancet Neurol. 2004 Dec; 3(12):703. PMID: 15556798.
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    98. Travers SA, Clewley JP, Glynn JR, Fine PE, Crampin AC, Sibande F, Mulawa D, McInerney JO, McCormack GP. Timing and reconstruction of the most recent common ancestor of the subtype C clade of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2004 Oct; 78(19):10501-6. PMID: 15367616; PMCID: PMC516391.
    99. Fitness J, Floyd S, Warndorff DK, Sichali L, Malema S, Crampin AC, Fine PE, Hill AV. Large-scale candidate gene study of tuberculosis susceptibility in the Karonga district of northern Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Sep; 71(3):341-9. PMID: 15381817.
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    100. Fine PE. Commentary: is it really M. leprae? Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 2004 Sep; 72(3):317-9. PMID: 15485289.
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    101. Fitness J, Floyd S, Warndorff DK, Sichali L, Mwaungulu L, Crampin AC, Fine PE, Hill AV. Large-scale candidate gene study of leprosy susceptibility in the Karonga district of northern Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Sep; 71(3):330-40. PMID: 15381816.
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    102. Glynn JR, Yates MD, Crampin AC, Ngwira BM, Mwaungulu FD, Black GF, Chaguluka SD, Mwafulirwa DT, Floyd S, Murphy C, Drobniewski FA, Fine PE. DNA fingerprint changes in tuberculosis: reinfection, evolution, or laboratory error? J Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 15; 190(6):1158-66. PMID: 15319867.
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    103. Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Ngwira BM, Mwaungulu FD, Mwafulirwa DT, Floyd S, Pönnighaus JM, Warndorff DK, Fine PE. Trends in tuberculosis and the influence of HIV infection in northern Malawi, 1988-2001. AIDS. 2004 Jul 02; 18(10):1459-63. PMID: 15199323.
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    104. Wallace C, Fitness J, Hennig B, Sichali L, Mwaungulu L, Pönnighaus JM, Warndorff DK, Clayton D, Fine PE, Hill AV. Linkage analysis of susceptibility to leprosy type using an IBD regression method. Genes Immun. 2004 May; 5(3):221-5. PMID: 15014432.
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    105. Mwaungulu FB, Floyd S, Crampin AC, Kasimba S, Malema S, Kanyongoloka H, Harries AD, Glynn JR, Fine PE. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis reduces mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-positive tuberculosis patients in Karonga District, Malawi. Bull World Health Organ. 2004 May; 82(5):354-63. PMID: 15298226; PMCID: PMC2622842.
    106. Weir RE, Black GF, Dockrell HM, Floyd S, Fine PE, Chaguluka SD, Stenson S, King E, Nazareth B, Warndorff DK, Ngwira B, Crampin AC, Mwaungulu L, Sichali L, Jarman E, Donovan L, Blackwell JM. Mycobacterial purified protein derivatives stimulate innate immunity: Malawians show enhanced tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-10 responses compared to those of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Infect Immun. 2004 Mar; 72(3):1807-11. PMID: 14977992; PMCID: PMC356017.
    107. Fine PE, Oblapenko G, Sutter RW. Polio control after certification: major issues outstanding. Bull World Health Organ. 2004 Jan; 82(1):47-52. PMID: 15106300; PMCID: PMC2585872.
    108. Crampin AC, Glynn JR, Floyd S, Malema SS, Mwinuka VK, Ngwira BM, Mwaungulu FD, Warndorff DK, Fine PE. Tuberculosis and gender: exploring the patterns in a case control study in Malawi. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004 Feb; 8(2):194-203. PMID: 15139448.
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    109. Fine PE. The interval between successive cases of an infectious disease. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Dec 01; 158(11):1039-47. PMID: 14630599.
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    110. Weir RE, Fine PE, Nazareth B, Floyd S, Black GF, King E, Stanley C, Bliss L, Branson K, Dockrell HM. Interferon-gamma and skin test responses of schoolchildren in southeast England to purified protein derivatives from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other species of mycobacteria. Clin Exp Immunol. 2003 Nov; 134(2):285-94. PMID: 14616789; PMCID: PMC1808851.
    111. Crampin AC, Glynn JR, Ngwira BM, Mwaungulu FD, Pönnighaus JM, Warndorff DK, Fine PE. Trends and measurement of HIV prevalence in northern Malawi. AIDS. 2003 Aug 15; 17(12):1817-25. PMID: 12891068.
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    112. Black GF, Weir RE, Chaguluka SD, Warndorff D, Crampin AC, Mwaungulu L, Sichali L, Floyd S, Bliss L, Jarman E, Donovan L, Andersen P, Britton W, Hewinson G, Huygen K, Paulsen J, Singh M, Prestidge R, Fine PE, Dockrell HM. Gamma interferon responses induced by a panel of recombinant and purified mycobacterial antigens in healthy, non-mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated Malawian young adults. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003 Jul; 10(4):602-11. PMID: 12853392; PMCID: PMC164276.
    113. Cutts FT, Fine PE. Caution--mortality ratios ahead. Lancet. 2003 Jun 28; 361(9376):2169-70. PMID: 12842364.
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    114. Wallace C, Clayton D, Fine P. Estimating the relative recurrence risk ratio for leprosy in Karonga District, Malawi. Lepr Rev. 2003 Jun; 74(2):133-40. PMID: 12862254.
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    115. McCormack GP, Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Sibande F, Mulawa D, Fine PE, Clewley JP. Highly divergent HIV type 1 group M sequences evident in Karonga District, Malawi in early 1980s. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003 May; 19(5):441-5. PMID: 12816092.
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    116. Crampin AC, Floyd S, Glynn JR, Madise N, Nyondo A, Khondowe MM, Njoka CL, Kanyongoloka H, Ngwira B, Zaba B, Fine PE. The long-term impact of HIV and orphanhood on the mortality and physical well-being of children in rural Malawi. AIDS. 2003 Feb 14; 17(3):389-97. PMID: 12556693.
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    117. Vynnycky E, Borgdorff MW, van Soolingen D, Fine PE. Annual Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection risk and interpretation of clustering statistics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Feb; 9(2):176-83. PMID: 12603987.
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    118. Fine PE. Commentary: Non-specific effects of measles vaccine--more grist for the mill. Int J Epidemiol. 2003 Feb; 32(1):116-7. PMID: 12690021.
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    119. McCormack GP, Glynn JR, Crampin AC, Sibande F, Mulawa D, Bliss L, Broadbent P, Abarca K, Pönnighaus JM, Fine PE, Clewley JP. Early evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C epidemic in rural Malawi. J Virol. 2002 Dec; 76(24):12890-9. PMID: 12438614; PMCID: PMC136717.
    120. Mwinga A, Nunn A, Ngwira B, Chintu C, Warndorff D, Fine P, Darbyshire J, Zumla A. Mycobacterium vaccae (SRL172) immunotherapy as an adjunct to standard antituberculosis treatment in HIV-infected adults with pulmonary tuberculosis: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002 Oct 05; 360(9339):1050-5. PMID: 12383985.
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    121. Floyd S, Pönnighaus JM, Bliss L, Nkhosa P, Sichali L, Msiska G, Fine PE. Kinetics of delayed-type hypersensitivity to tuberculin induced by bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination in northern Malawi. J Infect Dis. 2002 Sep 15; 186(6):807-14. PMID: 12198615.
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    122. Crampin AC, Floyd S, Glynn JR, Sibande F, Mulawa D, Nyondo A, Broadbent P, Bliss L, Ngwira B, Fine PE. Long-term follow-up of HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in rural Malawi. AIDS. 2002 Jul 26; 16(11):1545-50. PMID: 12131193.
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    123. Black GF, Weir RE, Floyd S, Bliss L, Warndorff DK, Crampin AC, Ngwira B, Sichali L, Nazareth B, Blackwell JM, Branson K, Chaguluka SD, Donovan L, Jarman E, King E, Fine PE, Dockrell HM. BCG-induced increase in interferon-gamma response to mycobacterial antigens and efficacy of BCG vaccination in Malawi and the UK: two randomised controlled studies. Lancet. 2002 Apr 20; 359(9315):1393-401. PMID: 11978337.
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    124. Nathanson N, Fine P. Virology. Poliomyelitis eradication--a dangerous endgame. Science. 2002 Apr 12; 296(5566):269-70. PMID: 11951020.
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    125. Ngwira BM, Jabu CH, Kanyongoloka H, Mponda M, Crampin AC, Branson K, Alexander ND, Fine PE. Lymphatic filariasis in the Karonga district of northern Malawi: a prevalence survey. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002 Mar; 96(2):137-44. PMID: 12080974.
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    126. Randall AE, Perez MA, Floyd S, Black GF, Crampin AC, Ngwira B, Pistoni WN, Mulawa D, Sichali L, Mwaungulu L, Bickle Q, Fine PE. Patterns of helminth infection and relationship to BCG vaccination in Karonga District, northern Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002 Jan-Feb; 96(1):29-33. PMID: 11925985.
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    127. Crampin AC, Floyd S, Mwaungulu F, Black G, Ndhlovu R, Mwaiyeghele E, Glynn JR, Warndorff DK, Fine PE. Comparison of two versus three smears in identifying culture-positive tuberculosis patients in a rural African setting with high HIV prevalence. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2001 Nov; 5(11):994-9. PMID: 11716350.
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    128. Glynn JR, Pönnighaus J, Crampin AC, Sibande F, Sichali L, Nkhosa P, Broadbent P, Fine PE. The development of the HIV epidemic in Karonga District, Malawi. AIDS. 2001 Oct 19; 15(15):2025-9. PMID: 11600832.
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    129. Crampin AC, Mwinuka V, Malema SS, Glynn JR, Fine PE. Field-based random sampling without a sampling frame: control selection for a case-control study in rural Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Sep-Oct; 95(5):481-3. PMID: 11706653.
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    130. Black GF, Dockrell HM, Crampin AC, Floyd S, Weir RE, Bliss L, Sichali L, Mwaungulu L, Kanyongoloka H, Ngwira B, Warndorff DK, Fine PE. Patterns and implications of naturally acquired immune responses to environmental and tuberculous mycobacterial antigens in northern Malawi. J Infect Dis. 2001 Aug 01; 184(3):322-9. PMID: 11443558.
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    131. Fine PE, Floyd S, Stanford JL, Nkhosa P, Kasunga A, Chaguluka S, Warndorff DK, Jenkins PA, Yates M, Ponnighaus JM. Environmental mycobacteria in northern Malawi: implications for the epidemiology of tuberculosis and leprosy. Epidemiol Infect. 2001 Jun; 126(3):379-87. PMID: 11467795; PMCID: PMC2869706.
    132. Vynnycky E, Nagelkerke N, Borgdorff MW, van Soolingen D, van Embden JD, Fine PE. The effect of age and study duration on the relationship between 'clustering' of DNA fingerprint patterns and the proportion of tuberculosis disease attributable to recent transmission. Epidemiol Infect. 2001 Feb; 126(1):43-62. PMID: 11293682; PMCID: PMC2869673.
    133. Fine PE, Sutter RW, Orenstein WA. Stopping a polio outbreak in the post-eradication era. Dev Biol (Basel). 2001; 105:129-47; discussion 149-50. PMID: 11763322.
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    134. Fine PE. BCG: the challenge continues. Scand J Infect Dis. 2001; 33(4):243-5. PMID: 11345212.
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    135. Fine P. Commentary: an unexpected finding that needs confirmation or rejection. BMJ. 2000 Dec 09; 321(7274):1439. PMID: 11187939.
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    136. Floyd S, Ponnighaus JM, Bliss L, Warndorff DK, Kasunga A, Mogha P, Fine PE. BCG scars in northern Malawi: sensitivity and repeatability of scar reading, and factors affecting scar size. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2000 Dec; 4(12):1133-42. PMID: 11144455.
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    137. Dockrell HM, Black GF, Weir RE, Fine PE. Whole blood assays for interferon-gamma: practicalities and potential for use as diagnostic tests in the field. Lepr Rev. 2000 Dec; 71 Suppl:S60-2. PMID: 11201889.
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    138. Glynn JR, Warndorff DK, Malema SS, Mwinuka V, Pönnighaus JM, Crampin AC, Fine PE. Tuberculosis: associations with HIV and socioeconomic status in rural Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Sep-Oct; 94(5):500-3. PMID: 11132374.
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    139. Warndorff DK, Yates M, Ngwira B, Chagaluka S, Jenkins PA, Drobniewski F, Pönnighaus JM, Glynn JR, Fine PE. Trends in antituberculosis drug resistance in Karonga District, Malawi, 1986-1998. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2000 Aug; 4(8):752-7. PMID: 10949327.
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    140. Vynnycky E, Fine PE. Lifetime risks, incubation period, and serial interval of tuberculosis. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Aug 01; 152(3):247-63. PMID: 10933272.
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    141. Fine PE. Gaps in our knowledge about transmission of vaccine-derived polioviruses. Bull World Health Organ. 2000; 78(3):358-9. PMID: 10812732; PMCID: PMC2560718.
    142. McGwin G, Chapman V, Rousculp M, Robison J, Fine P. The epidemiology of fire-related deaths in Alabama, 1992-1997. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2000 Jan-Feb; 21(1 Pt 1):75-3; discussion 74. PMID: 10661543.
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    143. Glynn JR, Bauer J, de Boer AS, Borgdorff MW, Fine PE, Godfrey-Faussett P, Vynnycky E. Interpreting DNA fingerprint clusters of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. European Concerted Action on Molecular Epidemiology and Control of Tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999 Dec; 3(12):1055-60. PMID: 10599007.
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    144. Fine PE, Carneiro IA. Transmissibility and persistence of oral polio vaccine viruses: implications for the global poliomyelitis eradication initiative. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Nov 15; 150(10):1001-21. PMID: 10568615.
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    145. Fine PE, Bruce J, Ponnighaus JM, Nkhosa P, Harawa A, Vynnycky E. Tuberculin sensitivity: conversions and reversions in a rural African population. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1999 Nov; 3(11):962-75. PMID: 10587318.
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    146. Fine PE, Small PM. Exogenous reinfection in tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 1999 Oct 14; 341(16):1226-7. PMID: 10519901.
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    147. Fine PE. South Indian leprosy vaccine trial: important lessons for mycobacterial immunology. Lepr Rev. 1999 Sep; 70(3):247-9. PMID: 10603712.
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    148. Vynnycky E, Fine PE. Interpreting the decline in tuberculosis: the role of secular trends in effective contact. Int J Epidemiol. 1999 Apr; 28(2):327-34. PMID: 10342699.
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    149. Glynn JR, Vynnycky E, Fine PE. Influence of sampling on estimates of clustering and recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis derived from DNA fingerprinting techniques. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Feb 15; 149(4):366-71. PMID: 10025480.
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    150. Fine PE, Vynnycky E. The effect of heterologous immunity upon the apparent efficacy of (e.g. BCG) vaccines. Vaccine. 1998 Dec; 16(20):1923-8. PMID: 9796044.
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    151. Fine PE, Truman R. Report of workshop on epidemiology/transmission/vaccines. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1998 Dec; 66(4):596-7. PMID: 10347588.
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    152. Vynnycky E, Fine PE. The long-term dynamics of tuberculosis and other diseases with long serial intervals: implications of and for changing reproduction numbers. Epidemiol Infect. 1998 Oct; 121(2):309-24. PMID: 9825782; PMCID: PMC2809528.
    153. Sterne JA, Fine PE, Pönnighaus JM, Rees RJ, Chavula D. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to Mycobacterium leprae soluble antigens as a test for infection with the leprosy bacillus. Int J Epidemiol. 1998 Aug; 27(4):713-21. PMID: 9758130.
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    154. Fine PE. Vaccines, genes and trials. Novartis Found Symp. 1998; 217:57-69; discussion 69-72. PMID: 9949801.
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    155. Glynn JR, Warndorff DK, Fine PE, Munthali MM, Sichone W, Pönnighaus JM. Measurement and determinants of tuberculosis outcome in Karonga District, Malawi. Bull World Health Organ. 1998; 76(3):295-305. PMID: 9744250; PMCID: PMC2305706.
    156. Aaby P, Babiker A, Darbyshire J, Nunn A, Barreto S, Alonso P, Badaro R, Barros F, Victoria C, Binka F, Biryahwaho B, Byabamazima C, Sempala S, Tugume B, Kalebu P, Kengeya-Kayondo J, Whitworth J, Paxton L, Convit J, Corrah T, McAdam K, Datta M, Dowlati Y, Fine P, Tanner M, et al. Ethics of HIV trials. Lancet. 1997 Nov 22; 350(9090):1546. PMID: 9388413.
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    157. Vynnycky E, Fine PE. The natural history of tuberculosis: the implications of age-dependent risks of disease and the role of reinfection. Epidemiol Infect. 1997 Oct; 119(2):183-201. PMID: 9363017; PMCID: PMC2808840.
    158. Vynnycky E, Fine PE. The annual risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in England and Wales since 1901. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 1997 Oct; 1(5):389-96. PMID: 9441091.
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    159. Fine PE, Warndorff DK. Leprosy by the year 2000--what is being eliminated? Lepr Rev. 1997 Sep; 68(3):201-2. PMID: 9364819.
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    160. Bloom B, Cole S, Duncan K, Enarson D, Fine P, Ginsberg A, La Montagne J, Smith P, Young D. Tuberculosis: old lessons unlearnt? Lancet. 1997 Jul 12; 350(9071):149. PMID: 9228995.
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    161. Fine PE, Sterne JA, Pönnighaus JM, Bliss L, Saui J, Chihana A, Munthali M, Warndorff DK. Household and dwelling contact as risk factors for leprosy in northern Malawi. Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Jul 01; 146(1):91-102. PMID: 9215227.
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    162. Fine PE. Adult pertussis: a salesman's dream--and an epidemiologist's nightmare. Biologicals. 1997 Jun; 25(2):195-8. PMID: 9236051.
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    163. Ponnighaus JM, Lienhardt C, Lucas S, Fine PE, Sterne JA. Comparison of bacillary indexes in slit-skin smears, skin and nerve biopsies; a study from Malawi. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1997 Jun; 65(2):211-6. PMID: 9251593.
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    164. Rosenfeld AA, Pilowsky DJ, Fine P, Thorpe M, Fein E, Simms MD, Halfon N, Irwin M, Alfaro J, Saletsky R, Nickman S. Foster care: an update. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997 Apr; 36(4):448-57. PMID: 9100418.
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    165. Fine PE. Implications of different study designs for the evaluation of acellular pertussis vaccines. Dev Biol Stand. 1997; 89:123-33. PMID: 9272342.
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    166. Fine PE. Regarding antileprosy vaccine--an apprehension by Dr. Prakash. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1996 Dec; 64(4):448-9. PMID: 9030112.
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    167. Fine PE. Primary prevention of leprosy. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1996 Dec; 64(4 Suppl):S44-9. PMID: 9030123.
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    168. Warndorff DK, Glynn JR, Fine PE, Jamil S, de Wit MY, Munthali MM, Stoker NG, Klatser PR. Polymerase chain reaction of nasal swabs from tuberculosis patients and their contacts. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1996 Dec; 64(4):404-8. PMID: 9030106.
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    169. Fine PE, Smith PG. Vaccination against leprosy--the view from 1996. Lepr Rev. 1996 Dec; 67(4):249-52. PMID: 9033195.
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    170. Pönnighaus JM, Fine PE, Saul J. The epidemiology of pityriasis versicolor in Malawi, Africa. Mycoses. 1996 Nov-Dec; 39(11-12):467-70. PMID: 9145006.
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    171. Knudsen KM, Aaby P, Whittle H, Rowe M, Samb B, Simondon F, Sterne J, Fine P. Child mortality following standard, medium or high titre measles immunization in West Africa. Int J Epidemiol. 1996 Jun; 25(3):665-73. PMID: 8671571.
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    172. Sterne JA, Fine PE, Pönnighaus JM, Sibanda F, Munthali M, Glynn JR. Does bacille Calmette-Guérin scar size have implications for protection against tuberculosis or leprosy? Tuber Lung Dis. 1996 Apr; 77(2):117-23. PMID: 8762845.
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    173. Noordeen SK, Roxas MG, Fine PE, Smith WC, Feenstra P, Gokhale SD, Joo LK, Huan-Ying L, Khalafalla G, Becx-Bleumink M, Srinivasan H, Rao CK, Lechat MF, Sansarricq H. Eliminating leprosy as a public health problem--is the optimism justified? World Health Forum. 1996; 17(2):109-44. PMID: 8936264.
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    174. Sterne JA, Pönnighaus JM, Fine PE, Malema SS. Geographic determinants of leprosy in Karonga District, Northern Malawi. Int J Epidemiol. 1995 Dec; 24(6):1211-22. PMID: 8824865.
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    175. Fine PE. Variation in protection by BCG: implications of and for heterologous immunity. Lancet. 1995 Nov 18; 346(8986):1339-45. PMID: 7475776.
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    176. Sterne JA, Turner AC, Fine PE, Parry JV, Lucas SB, Pönnighaus JM, Mkandwire PK, Nyasulu S, Warndorff DK. Testing for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in a population in which mycobacterial diseases are endemic. J Infect Dis. 1995 Aug; 172(2):543-6. PMID: 7622901.
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    177. Fine PE. Methodological issues in the evaluation and monitoring of vaccine safety. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 May 31; 754:300-8. PMID: 7625666.
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    178. Glynn JR, Jenkins PA, Fine PE, Pönnighaus JM, Sterne JA, Mkandwire PK, Nyasulu S, Bliss L, Warndorff DK. Patterns of initial and acquired antituberculosis drug resistance in Karonga District, Malawi. Lancet. 1995 Apr 08; 345(8954):907-10. PMID: 7707817.
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    179. Lucas SB, Fine PE, Sterne JA, Pönnighaus JM, Turner AC, De Cock KM, Zuckerman M. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among leprosy patients in Zaire. J Infect Dis. 1995 Feb; 171(2):502-4. PMID: 7844401.
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    180. Fine PE. Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccines: a rough guide. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Jan; 20(1):11-4. PMID: 7727635.
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    181. Fine PE, Sterne JA, Pönnighaus JM, Rees RJ. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, mycobacterial vaccines and protective immunity. Lancet. 1994 Nov 05; 344(8932):1245-9. PMID: 7967984.
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    182. Ponnighaus JM, Fine PE, Sterne JA, Malema SS, Bliss L, Wilson RJ. Extended schooling and good housing conditions are associated with reduced risk of leprosy in rural Malawi. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1994 Sep; 62(3):345-52. PMID: 7963906.
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    183. Lienhardt C, Fine PE. Type 1 reaction, neuritis and disability in leprosy. What is the current epidemiological situation? Lepr Rev. 1994 Mar; 65(1):9-33. PMID: 8201838.
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    184. Pönnighaus JM, Fine PE, Sterne JA, Bliss L, Wilson RJ, Malema SS, Kileta S. Incidence rates of leprosy in Karonga District, northern Malawi: patterns by age, sex, BCG status and classification. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1994 Mar; 62(1):10-23. PMID: 8189075.
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    185. Noordhoek GT, Kolk AH, Bjune G, Catty D, Dale JW, Fine PE, Godfrey-Faussett P, Cho SN, Shinnick T, Svenson SB, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a blind comparison study among seven laboratories. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Feb; 32(2):277-84. PMID: 8150935; PMCID: PMC263025.
    186. Fine PE, Zell ER. Outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations: implications for studies of vaccine performance. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Jan 01; 139(1):77-90. PMID: 8296777.
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    187. Orege PA, Fine PE, Lucas SB, Obura M, Okelo C, Okuku P. Case-control study of BCG vaccination as a risk factor for leprosy and tuberculosis in western Kenya. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1993 Dec; 61(4):542-9. PMID: 8151184.
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    188. Pönnighaus JM, Fine PE, Bliss L, Gruer PJ, Kapira-Mwamondwe B, Msosa E, Rees RJ, Clayton D, Pike MC, Sterne JA, et al. The Karonga Prevention Trial: a leprosy and tuberculosis vaccine trial in northern Malawi. I. Methods of the vaccination phase. Lepr Rev. 1993 Dec; 64(4):338-56. PMID: 8127221.
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    189. Orege PA, Fine PE, Lucas SB, Obura M, Okelo C, Okuku P, Were M. A case control study on human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection as a risk factor for tuberculosis and leprosy in western Kenya. Tuber Lung Dis. 1993 Dec; 74(6):377-81. PMID: 8136490.
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    190. Fine PE, Job CK, Lucas SB, Meyers WM, Pönnighaus JM, Sterne JA. Extent, origin, and implications of observer variation in the histopathological diagnosis of suspected leprosy. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1993 Jun; 61(2):270-82. PMID: 8371035.
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    191. Pönnighaus JM, Fine PE, Sterne JA, Lucas SB, McDougall AC. Long-term active surveillance of leprosy suspects--what are the likely returns? Lepr Rev. 1993 Mar; 64(1):25-36. PMID: 8464314.
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    192. Sterne JA, Turner AC, Connell JA, Parry JV, Fine PE, Ponnighaus JM, Nyasulu S, Mkandwire PK. Human immunodeficiency virus: GACPAT and GACELISA as diagnostic tests for antibodies in urine. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Mar-Apr; 87(2):181-3. PMID: 8337722.
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    193. Fine PE. Herd immunity: history, theory, practice. Epidemiol Rev. 1993; 15(2):265-302. PMID: 8174658.
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    194. Fine PE, Smith PG. Efficacy of leprosy vaccine. Nature. 1992 Dec 03; 360(6403):406. PMID: 1448161.
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    195. Lienhardt C, Fine PE. Controlling leprosy. BMJ. 1992 Jul 25; 305(6847):206-7. PMID: 1392818; PMCID: PMC1882664.
    196. Fine PE, Chen RT. Confounding in studies of adverse reactions to vaccines. Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Jul 15; 136(2):121-35. PMID: 1415136.
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    197. Pönnighaus JM, Fine PE, Sterne JA, Wilson RJ, Msosa E, Gruer PJ, Jenkins PA, Lucas SB, Liomba NG, Bliss L. Efficacy of BCG vaccine against leprosy and tuberculosis in northern Malawi. Lancet. 1992 Mar 14; 339(8794):636-9. PMID: 1347338.
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    198. Fine PE. Reflections on the elimination of leprosy. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1992 Mar; 60(1):71-80. PMID: 1602195.
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    199. Pönnighaus JM, Mwanjasi LJ, Fine PE, Shaw MA, Turner AC, Oxborrow SM, Lucas SB, Jenkins PA, Sterne JA, Bliss L. Is HIV infection a risk factor for leprosy? Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1991 Jun; 59(2):221-8. PMID: 2071978.
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    200. Boerrigter G, Pönnighaus JM, Fine PE, Wilson RJ. Four-year follow-up results of a WHO-recommended multiple-drug regimen in paucibacillary leprosy patients in Malawi. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1991 Jun; 59(2):255-61. PMID: 2071983.
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    201. Fine P, Dockrell H. Leprosy vaccines. Vaccine. 1991 May; 9(5):291-3. PMID: 1872011.
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    202. Pönnighaus JM, Fine PE, Moreno C. Hypersensitivity to dextran in BCG vaccine. Lancet. 1991 Apr 27; 337(8748):1039. PMID: 1708069.
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    203. Shaw MA, Turner AC, Blackwell JM, Fine PE, Ponnighaus JM. Setting up HIV serology for the Karonga leprosy vaccine trial in Malawi. Lepr Rev. 1991 Mar; 62(1):87-104. PMID: 2034030.
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    204. Ponnighaus IM, Boerrigter G, Fine PE, Ponnighaus JM, Russell J. Disabilities in leprosy patients ascertained in a total population survey in Karonga District, northern Malawi. Lepr Rev. 1990 Dec; 61(4):366-74. PMID: 2280658.
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    205. Ponnighaus JM, Fine PE, Gruer PJ, Maine N. The anatomical distribution of single leprosy lesions in an African population, and its implications for the pathogenesis of leprosy. Lepr Rev. 1990 Sep; 61(3):242-50. PMID: 2215057.
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    206. Fine PE, Rodrigues LC. Modern vaccines. Mycobacterial diseases. Lancet. 1990 Apr 28; 335(8696):1016-20. PMID: 1970071.
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    207. Markowitz LE, Preblud SR, Fine PE, Orenstein WA. Duration of live measles vaccine-induced immunity. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1990 Feb; 9(2):101-10. PMID: 2179836.
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    208. Fine PE. Immunological tools in leprosy control. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1989 Sep; 57(3):671-86. PMID: 2674305.
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    209. Fine PE, Gruer PJ, Maine N, Ponnighaus JM, Rees RJ, Stanford JL. Failure of Mycobacterium leprae soluble antigens to suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to tuberculin. Clin Exp Immunol. 1989 Aug; 77(2):226-9. PMID: 2673590; PMCID: PMC1541994.
    210. Fine PE. The BCG story: lessons from the past and implications for the future. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Mar-Apr; 11 Suppl 2:S353-9. PMID: 2652252.
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    211. Ponnighaus JM, Fine PE. A comparison of sensory loss tests and histopathology in the diagnosis of leprosy. Lepr Rev. 1989 Mar; 60(1):20-7. PMID: 2725168.
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    212. Fine PE, Ponnighaus JM, Maine N. The distribution and implications of BCG scars in northern Malawi. Bull World Health Organ. 1989; 67(1):35-42. PMID: 2706726; PMCID: PMC2491224.
    213. Fine PE. Implications of genetics for the epidemiology and control of leprosy. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1988 Oct 31; 321(1207):365-76. PMID: 2907149.
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    214. Fine PE, Clarkson JA, Miller E. The efficacy of pertussis vaccines under conditions of household exposure. Further analysis of the 1978-80 PHLS/ERL study in 21 area health authorities in England. Int J Epidemiol. 1988 Sep; 17(3):635-42. PMID: 3264824.
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    215. Boerrigter G, Ponnighaus JM, Fine PE. Preliminary appraisal of a WHO-recommended multiple drug regimen in paucibacillary leprosy patients in Malawi. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1988 Sep; 56(3):408-17. PMID: 3418206.
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    216. Fine PE, Jezek Z, Grab B, Dixon H. The transmission potential of monkeypox virus in human populations. Int J Epidemiol. 1988 Sep; 17(3):643-50. PMID: 2850277.
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    217. Burgess PJ, Fine PE, Ponnighaus JM, Draper C. Serological tests in leprosy. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of ELISA tests based on phenolic glycolipid antigens, and the implications for their use in epidemiological studies. Epidemiol Infect. 1988 Aug; 101(1):159-71. PMID: 3042436; PMCID: PMC2249338.
    218. Fine PE. BCG vaccination against tuberculosis and leprosy. Br Med Bull. 1988 Jul; 44(3):691-703. PMID: 3076815.
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    219. Fine PE, Ponnighaus JM, Burgess P, Clarkson JA, Draper CC. Seroepidemiological studies of leprosy in northern Malawi based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using synthetic glycoconjugate antigen. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1988 Jun; 56(2):243-54. PMID: 3045222.
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    220. Ponnighaus JM, Fine PE, Maine N, Bliss L, Kalambo M, Ponnighaus I. The Lepra Evaluation Project (LEP), an epidemiological study of leprosy in northern Malawi. II: Prevalence rates. Lepr Rev. 1988 Jun; 59(2):97-112. PMID: 3266780.
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    221. Ponnighaus JM, Fine PE. Leprosy in Malawi. 1. Sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis and the search for risk factors for leprosy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1988; 82(6):803-9. PMID: 3256982.
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    222. Fine PE. Can pertussis be eradicated? Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 1988; 13 Suppl:129-31. PMID: 3078802.
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    223. Fine PE, Ponnighaus JM. Leprosy in Malawi. 2. Background, design and prospects of the Karonga Prevention Trial, a leprosy vaccine trial in northern Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1988; 82(6):810-7. PMID: 3076995.
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    224. Ponninghaus JM, Fine PE, Bliss L, Sliney IJ, Bradley DJ, Rees RJ. The Lepra Evaluation Project (LEP), an epidemiological study of leprosy in Northern Malawi. I. Methods. Lepr Rev. 1987 Dec; 58(4):359-75. PMID: 3431336.
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    225. Clarkson JA, Fine PE. An assessment of methods for routine local monitoring of vaccine efficacy, with particular reference to measles and pertussis. Epidemiol Infect. 1987 Oct; 99(2):485-99. PMID: 3678405; PMCID: PMC2249298.
    226. Ponnighaus JM, Fine PE, Bliss L. Certainty levels in the diagnosis of leprosy. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1987 Sep; 55(3):454-62. PMID: 3655460.
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    227. Fine PE, Clarkson JA. Reflections on the efficacy of pertussis vaccines. Rev Infect Dis. 1987 Sep-Oct; 9(5):866-83. PMID: 3317732.
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    228. McDougall AC, Ponnighaus JM, Fine PE. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies from an epidemiological study of leprosy in northern Malawi. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1987 Mar; 55(1):88-98. PMID: 3559338.
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    229. Fine PE, Job CK, McDougall AC, Meyers WM, Ponnighaus JM. Comparability among histopathologists in the diagnosis and classification of lesions suspected of leprosy in Malawi. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1986 Dec; 54(4):614-25. PMID: 3819531.
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    230. Pönnighaus JM, Fine PE. The Karonga prevention trial--which BCG? Lepr Rev. 1986 Dec; 57 Suppl 2:285-92. PMID: 3553801.
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    231. Fine PE, Clarkson JA. Individual versus public priorities in the determination of optimal vaccination policies. Am J Epidemiol. 1986 Dec; 124(6):1012-20. PMID: 3096132.
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    232. Fine PE, Pönnighaus JM, Maine NP. The relationship between delayed type hypersensitivity and protective immunity induced by mycobacterial vaccines in man. Lepr Rev. 1986 Dec; 57 Suppl 2:275-83. PMID: 3553800.
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    233. Fine PE, Ponnighaus JM, Maine N, Clarkson JA, Bliss L. Protective efficacy of BCG against leprosy in Northern Malawi. Lancet. 1986 Aug 30; 2(8505):499-502. PMID: 2875247.
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    234. Fine PE, Clarkson JA. Seasonal influences on pertussis. Int J Epidemiol. 1986 Jun; 15(2):237-47. PMID: 3721687.
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    235. Ponnighaus JM, Fine PE. Sensitization studies with potential leprosy vaccine preparations in northern Malawi. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1986 Mar; 54(1):25-37. PMID: 3519803.
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    236. Longini IM, Fine PE, Thacker SB. Predicting the global spread of new infectious agents. Am J Epidemiol. 1986 Mar; 123(3):383-91. PMID: 3946385.
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    237. Fine PE. The Kellersberger memorial lecture, 1985. The role of BCG in the control of leprosy. Ethiop Med J. 1985 Oct; 23(4):179-91. PMID: 4054106.
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    238. Clarkson JA, Fine PE. The efficiency of measles and pertussis notification in England and Wales. Int J Epidemiol. 1985 Mar; 14(1):153-68. PMID: 3988430.
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    239. Fine PE, Adelstein AM, Snowman J, Clarkson JA, Evans SM. Long term effects of exposure to viral infections in utero. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985 Feb 16; 290(6467):509-11. PMID: 3918651; PMCID: PMC1418004.
    240. Fine P. Leprosy and tuberculosis--an epidemiological comparison. Tubercle. 1984 Jun; 65(2):137-53. PMID: 6380066.
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    241. Smith PG, Rodrigues LC, Fine PE. Assessment of the protective efficacy of vaccines against common diseases using case-control and cohort studies. Int J Epidemiol. 1984 Mar; 13(1):87-93. PMID: 6698708.
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    242. Fine PE, Clarkson JA. Distribution of immunity to pertussis in the population of England and Wales. J Hyg (Lond). 1984 Feb; 92(1):21-36. PMID: 6693763; PMCID: PMC2129354.
    243. Fine PE. Natural history of leprosy--aspects relevant to a leprosy vaccine. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1983 Dec; 51(4):553-5. PMID: 6368419.
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    244. Fine PE, Clarkson JA. Measles in England and Wales--III: Assessing published predictions of the impact of vaccination on incidence. Int J Epidemiol. 1983 Sep; 12(3):332-9. PMID: 6629622.
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    245. Fine PE, Clarkson JA. Measles in England and Wales--II: The impact of the measles vaccination programme on the distribution of immunity in the population. Int J Epidemiol. 1982 Mar; 11(1):15-25. PMID: 7085174.
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    246. Fine PE, Clarkson JA. Measles in England and Wales--I: An analysis of factors underlying seasonal patterns. Int J Epidemiol. 1982 Mar; 11(1):5-14. PMID: 7085179.
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    247. Fine PE. Leprosy: the epidemiology of a slow bacterium. Epidemiol Rev. 1982; 4:161-88. PMID: 6754406.
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    248. Fine PE. Problems in the collection and analysis of data in leprosy studies. Lepr Rev. 1981 Dec; 52 Suppl 1:197-206. PMID: 7339396.
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    249. Fine PE. Immunogenetics of susceptibility to leprosy, tuberculosis, and leishmaniasis. An epidemiological perspective. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1981 Dec; 49(4):437-54. PMID: 6804402.
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    250. Fine PE. A better system for polio vaccination in developing countries. Br Med J. 1980 Sep 27; 281(6244):873. PMID: 7427492; PMCID: PMC1714308.
    251. Wolf E, Fine PE, Pritchard J, Watson B, Bradley DJ, Festenstein H, Chacko CJ, Stevens A. HLA-A, B and C antigens in South Indian families with leprosy. Tissue Antigens. 1980 May; 15(5):436-46. PMID: 7444931.
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    252. Fine PE, Wolf E, Pritchard J, Watson B, Bradley DJ, Festenstein H, Chacko CJ. HLA-linked genes and leprosy: a family study in Karigiri, South India. J Infect Dis. 1979 Aug; 140(2):152-61. PMID: 479637.
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    253. Fine PE. Lamarckian ironies in contemporary biology. Lancet. 1979 Jun 02; 1(8127):1181-2. PMID: 86894.
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    254. Fine PE, LeDuc JW. Towards a quantitative understanding of the epidemiology of Keystone virus in the eastern United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1978 Mar; 27(2 Pt 1):322-38. PMID: 646025.
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    255. Fine PE. A commentary on the mechanical analogue to the Reed-Frost epidemic model. Am J Epidemiol. 1977 Aug; 106(2):87-100. PMID: 888821.
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    256. Fine PE, Lehman JS. Mathematical models of schistosomiasis: report of a workshop. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1977 May; 26(3):500-4. PMID: 405878.
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    257. Fine PE. Ross's a priori pathometry - a perspective. Proc R Soc Med. 1975 Sep; 68(9):547-51. PMID: 1105597; PMCID: PMC1864006.
    258. Fine PE. Proceedings: In vitro maintenance of Parahistomonas sp. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1974; 68(1):2-3. PMID: 4818659.
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